Case study data analysis
21 – january use of qualitative content analysis in case study ct: this paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) interpretation method in case study research. First,Case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. Then, a basic (qualitative) content analysis as an interpretation method for qualitative interviews and other data material is y the use of qualitative content analysis for developing case studies is examined and evaluated. The author favor of both case study research as a research strategy and qualitative content analysis as a method of examination material and seeks to encourage the integration of qualitative content analysis into the data analysis in case words: case study research, content analysis, qualitative content analysis, qualitative research. Neuman (1997) goes even further g that there are basically two categories of data collection techniques: quantitative and qualitative (p. First means collecting data in the form of numbers the second means collecting data in the form of words or pictures. Research question, aim and structure of the section presents the research question underlying the analysis and discussion in the following sections and gives a e of the paper, explaining its aim, structure and scope. 1 cognitive interest and research its development in the beginning of the 1980s, mayring's qualitative content analysis has achieved popularity (titscher,Meyer, wodak & vetter, 2000, p. However, this qualitatively oriented approach to content analysis—a discipline ted by quantitative methods—has mainly been discussed and used within the german-speaking scientific community and seem to have attracted as much attention internationally as it actually deserves2). In fact, gläser and laudel (2004) contend that qualitative content analysis is hardly used (p. Their bibliometric survey of the prominence of methods text analysis come to a similar conclusion as far as method ons are concerned (pp. However, when analyzing the frequency of keywords considerable deviations from the is turned up: a marked dominance of qualitative (and also quantitative) content analysis (titscher et al. Studies are widely used in organizational studies and across the social sciences, and there is some suggestion that study method is increasingly being used and with a growing confidence in the case study as a rigorous research its own right (cf. Stake (2000) concurs, suggesting that case become "one of the most common ways to do qualitative inquiry" (p. However, there have also been traditional t case study strategy in such a way that case studies have been viewed as a less desirable form of inquiry for instance. Besides, it was claimed that case studies lack in rigor and reliability and that they address the issue of generalizability in contrast to quantitative methods (hartley, 1994, p. Author argues in favor of both case study research as a research strategy—trying to disprove the critiques just mentioned—ative content analysis as a method of examination of data material. At the same time he seeks to encourage the qualitative content analysis into the important step of data analysis in case study research. The research question which is to be answered in the course of this paper is the following: what is the contribution qualitative content analysis can make as a method of text analysis (for interpreting interview other documents) in case study research? Or, put more generally: what is the contribution of using qualitative is as an interpretation and analysis method for developing case studies? 2 aim, structure and scope of the paper aims at exploring and discussing the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) in case study research3). First, case study research as a research strategy within qualitative social research is briefly presented. Then, a uction to (qualitative) content analysis as an interpretation and analysis method for text documents—especially ripts of qualitative interviews—and other data material is given, with the focus on philipp mayring's approach to t analysis. Finally, the use of qualitative content analysis for conducting case study research is examined and this paper only aims to serve as the starting point for a more thorough discussion of the application of t analysis for case study research, the scope is rather narrow. Besides, due to d scope of this paper and my own research interests, the focus will mainly be on organizational and managerial research,Even though both qualitative content analysis as well as case study research can be used in a much wider range of (see also sections 3. Case study studies are widely used in organizational studies and across the social sciences, and there is some suggestion that study method is increasingly being used and with a growing confidence in the case study as a rigorous research its own right (cf. Stake (2000) concurs, suggesting that case become "one of the most common ways to do qualitative inquiry," but at the same time concedes that "they are nor essentially qualitative" (p. In any case, quoting one of the most prominent experts in case study research, robert. Yin, we can say that "[u]sing case studies for research purposes remains one of the most challenging of all social science endeavors" (yin, 2003a, p. These must be distinguished from teaching case studies— studies as a pedagogical device—which are widely used particularly in business and law schools (cf. The main points of case study research are as far as they seem to be relevant for the analysis of the research question (see 2. Given this purpose and the the paper, this brief description can by no means serve as an introduction to case study research. For an extensive analysis of case study research reference should be made to the state-of-the-art literature (e. The distinctive need for case studies arises out of the desire to understand complex ena" because "the case study method allows investigators to retain the holistic and meaningful characteristics of ," such as organizational and managerial processes, for example. In fact, case studies seem to be the preferred "how or "why" questions are being posed, when the investigator has little control over events, and when the focus a contemporary phenomenon within some real-life context (yin, 1981, p. Depending on the type of research question posed, the extent of control an investigator has over actual , and the degree of focus on contemporary as opposed to historical events, there are also exploratory and descriptive case studies (yin, 2003a, pp. In contrast to this, stake (2000) identifies three types of case studies—intrinsic, instrumental, and collective—with the distinction between intrinsic and instrumental (a collective case study is instrumental study extended to ) addressing the degree to which the focus is on the unique or the generalizable features of the case research (pp. As a matter of interest, a common concern about case studies put forward by their that they provide little basis for scientific generalization (yin, 2003a, p. Yin's (2003a) answer to this:"case studies […] are generalizable to theoretical propositions and not to populations or universes. In this sense, the […] does not represent a 'sample', and in doing a case study, your goal will be to generalize theories (analytical generalization).
We take a look at the individual steps in the process of conducting case study research, it is now time to deliver. Hartley (2004), for instance, states that case study research " a detailed investigation, often with data collected over a period of time, of phenomena, within their context," with being "to provide an analysis of the context and processes which illuminate the theoretical issues being studied" (p. This respect, it is important to note that case studies have an important function in generating hypotheses and (cf. 14) offers a ed and technical definition of case studies:"a case study is an empirical inquiry igates a contemporary phenomenon within its real-life context, especially boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly case study with the technically distinctive situation in which there will be many more variables of interest than data points,Relies on multiple sources of evidence, with data needing to converge in a triangulating fashion, and as another ts from the prior development of theoretical propositions to guide data collection and analysis". This definition it might be important to note that a case study is not a method but a research strategy (cf. Or, put differently: "[c]ase study is not a methodological choice but a choice of what is to be studied. As matter of fact, case study as a research strategy comprises an , which means that a number of methods may be used—either qualitative, quantitative or both (cf. Therefore, a case study cannot be defined through its research methods, but rather in its theoretical orientation and interest in individual cases (hartley, 2004, p. Besides, research design can be used with other research strategies to address related research questions in different a research project, and yet a further strategy would be to start with exploratory case study research and then to emerging findings in wider survey-based research (hartley, 1994, p. Sum up, let us once again cite hartley (2004):"case study research is a heterogeneous activity covering a range of research methods and techniques, a range of coverage. From single case study through carefully matched pairs up to multiple cases), varied levels of analysis (individuals, groups,Organizations, organizational fields or social policies), and differing lengths and levels of involvement in oning" (p. 2 designing case ing to hartley (2004) research design is "the argument for the logical steps which will be taken to link the on(s) and issues to data collection, analysis and interpretation in a coherent way" (p. 28) identifies the following five components of research design as especially important for case studies:Its propositions, if any;. It will be helpful to consider whether the case study will be exploratory, descriptive or explanatory and decision to be made is whether the research will be based on a single case study or on multiple cases (hartley, 2004,P. For case studies, theory development as part of the design phase is essential, whether the ensuing case study'e is to develop or test theory, with theory development taking place prior to the collection of any case study an essential step in doing case studies (yin, 2003a, pp. However, depending on the depth and range of the ture, the initial focus of the case study may be quite focused or broad and open-ended. Theory development does not only facilitate the data collection phase of the ensuing case study, the ped theory also is the level at which the generalization of the case study results will occur. But not least, a major issue in designing case study research is the maximization of conditions related to design quality,I. 3 conducting case section will give a short overview of the main steps in undertaking case studies, drawing mainly from yin (2003a)'l work on case study research. Collecting ing to yin (2003a) there are six possible sources of evidence for case studies: documents, archival records, interviews,Direct observation, participant-observation, and physical artifacts (pp. Indeed, the case study's unique "its ability to deal with a full variety of evidence—documents, artifacts, interviews, and observations" (yin, 2003a, p. This to refine the data collection plans with respect to both the content of the data and the procedures to be followed. 2000) also sees the use of multiple sources of evidence as a "key characteristics of case study research" (p. A]ll evidence is of some use to the case study researcher: nothing is turned away" (p. Analyzing case study ing to hartley (1994, 2004) data collection and analysis are "developed together in an iterative process," which a strength as it allows for theory development which is grounded in empirical evidence (p. Besides, a ption of the data and the development of categories in which to place behaviors or process have proven to be in the process of analyzing the data. The data may then be organized around certain topics, key themes or central questions,And finally the data need to be examined to see how far they fit or fail to fit the expected categories (ibid. 2003a) maintains that data analysis consists of "examining, categorizing, tabulating, testing, or otherwise quantitative and qualitative evidence to address the initial propositions of a study" (p. In fact, "te goal of the case study is to uncover patterns, determine meanings, construct conclusions and build theory" (patton. Contends that any of these strategies can be used in practicing five specific techniques for analyzing case studies: ng, explanation building, time-series analysis, logic models, and cross-case synthesis (yin, 2003a, pp. Checking the findings with the case study participants can be a valuable part of the analysis and can enhance validity. Besides, the analyzing of data is enhanced by reference to the existing literature and using raise questions about whether the researcher's findings are consistent with or different from extant research (ibid. Reporting case a final step—or a final series of steps—the results and findings of a case study need to be brought to closure. This called reporting, with numerous forms of reports being available, and the typical case study report being a lengthy narrative. Notes that a "case study is both a process of inquiry about the the product of that inquiry," namely the report. Section provides a brief introduction to qualitative content analysis as a (text) analysis method for qualitative ch. The presentation will focus on qualitative content analysis as it was developed by philipp mayring in germany (n 4. At the end of this section, ia and validation issues relevant for qualitative content analysis will be highlighted (see section 4. 2000), content analysis is "the longest established method of text analysis among the set cal methods of social investigation" (p. To babbie (2001), content analysis can be defined as "the study of recorded human communications" (p.
Essentially a coding operation," with coding being "the process of transforming raw data into a standardized form" (babbie,2001, p. In fact, ryan and bernard (2000) see content analysis as one of the "major coding traditions" (p. D that "coding forces the researcher to make judgments about the meanings of contiguous blocks" and that coding is " and soul" of (whole) text analysis (ibid. According to them, classical content analysis "comprises techniques ng texts to a unit-by-variable matrix and analyzing that matrix quantitatively to test hypotheses" and the produce a matrix by applying a set of codes to a set of qualitative data (e. Development of content analysis is fundamentally connected to the development of mass media and international content analysis has gained significance in the first half of the twentieth century with the dramatic expansion of ication (mayring, 2002, p. Bible interpretations), early newspaper analysis, graphological procedures and an dream analysis can be seen as early precursors of content analysis (mayring, 2000a, ). According to gillham (2000),The "essence of content analysis is identifying substantive statements—statements that really say something" (p. Berelson (1971) defined content analysis : "content analysis is a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of the t of communication" (p. Classical content analysis is essentially a quantitative method with the core and central tool being its categories (cf. Besides, different correlate two separate measurements and contingencies, more complex procedures can also be used for analysis ( al. Berelson's book "content analysis in communication research" (first published 1952) was the first compendium of the goals of quantitative content analysis which had been developed up to that time, and which concentrated on the basis of frequency analyses (berelson, 1971). 2000a, ) even speaks of "a superficial analysis without respecting latent contents and contexts, working fying and distorting quantification. 31), for instance, criticized that especially the following four aspects are not taken into account quantitative content analysis:The context of text components;. S qualitative content analysis tries to overcome these shortcomings of classical quantitative content analysis ng a systematic, theory-guided approach to text analysis using a category system (cf. In fact, qualitative content analysis claims to synthesize two contradictory methodological principles: openness and theory-guided investigation (gläser & laudel, 1999, p. 2004) states that qualitative content analysis is "probably the most prevalent approach to the qualitative documents" and that it "comprises a searching-out of underlying themes in the materials being analyzed" (p. Little bit more specific he defines qualitative content analysis in the following way:"an approach to documents that emphasizes the role of the investigator in the construction of the meaning of and in is an emphasis on allowing categories to emerge out of data and on recognizing the significance for understanding g of the context in which an item being analyzed (and the categories derived from it) appeared" (bryman, 2004, p. In this, mayring's qualitative content analysis is not only an approach to analyzing documents but also a sophisticated tely described method at the same time. Excursus: qualitative presenting mayring's qualitative content analysis, a short overview of the basic assumptions and definitions of ch will be given. According to them, cs and change are major areas of interest in organizational research, and only qualitative methods are sensitive allow the detailed analysis of change, while quantitative methods are only able to "assess that a change has occurred but cannot say how (what processes were involved) or why (in terms of circumstances and stakeholders)" (cassell & symon,Generally, it can be said that qualitative techniques emerge form phenomenological and interpretive paradigms, with the on constructivist approaches where there is no clear-cut objectivity or reality (cassell & symon, 1994, p. Qualitative research is "less likely to impose restrictive a priori the collection of data," and thus research is "less driven by very specific hypotheses and categorical frameworks and ned with emergent themes and idiographic descriptions. This is also why, according to the qualitative research paradigm,It is only in the course of doing field research that one can find out which (research) questions can reasonably be it is only at the end that the researcher will know which questions can be answered by a study (lueger, 2000, p. Philipp mayring's section offers a short introduction to the main points of mayring's qualitative content analysis. 3) will be g's concept of qualitative content analysis was developed in the 1980s in a longitudinal study about psycho-social unemployment, when about 600 open-ended interviews yielded more than 20,000 pages of transcripts, which had to be a qualitatively oriented way (cf. Since then mayring's works seem to have become standard qualitative content analysis and some regularly appear in new editions (e. The main idea in the development of mayring's approach is "to preserve the advantages of t analysis as developed within communication science and to transfer and further develop them to of analysis" (mayring, 2000a, ). While at time it has become difficult to separate it from other methods of text analysis, particularly those oriented raphic methods or grounded theory (p. Given this background, mayring (2000a) offers the following definition of qualitative content analysis: "an empirical, methodological [sic! Controlled analysis of texts within their context of communication, following ical rules and step by step models, without rash quantification" (). The strength of qualitative content analysis is that it is strictly controlled methodologically and that the analyzed step-by-step. 2000) put it like this:"the core and central tool of any content analysis is its system of categories: every unit of analysis must be coded, to say, allocated to one or more categories. We said that qualitative content analysis aims to preserve the advantages of quantitative content analysis but same time apply a more qualitative text interpretation (see section 4. 46) emphasizes ing central points:Fitting the material into a model of communication: it should be determined on what part of the communication inferences made, to aspects of the communicator (his experiences, opinions, feelings), to the situation of the text production, socio-cultural background, to the text itself or to the effect of the atic, rule-based analysis: the material is to be analyzed step by step, following rules of procedure, devising the content analytical ries in the center of analysis: the aspects of text interpretation, following the research questions, are put into categories,Which were carefully founded and revised within the process of analysis (feedback loops). Reference instead of technique: instead of merely being a set of techniques for text analysis, the connection to te subject of analysis is a very important point for qualitative content analysis. This implies that the content analysis cannot be fixed but have to be adapted depending on the subject and its cation of the specific instruments through pilot studies: due to the subject-reference, fully standardized methods ned from. Inter-subjective verifiability is a case -guided analysis: technical fuzziness of qualitatively oriented research needs to be balanced by theoretical means that the state-of-the-field of the respective research subject as well as subjects closely related are be taken into account and integrated into the ion of quantitative steps of analysis: quantitative analyses are especially important when trying to generalize a matter of fact, this notion of triangulation to argue in favor of an integration of qualitative and quantitative methods is not limited to content analysis but has by many researchers (cf. 3): the procedure has the pretension to be hensible, to compare the results with other studies in the sense of triangulation and to carry out checks for rule-based approach of qualitative content analysis is supposed to guarantee that the whole empirical basis is with and that the analysis is reproducible to a certain extent (gläser & laudel, 1999, pp. As a matter of fact,It is this kind of systematics what distinguishes content analysis from more interpretive, hermeneutic processing of al (mayring, 2002, p. As a first step a lexico-grammatical definition is attempted,Then the material for explication is determined, and this is followed by a narrow context analysis, and a broad context y an "explicatory paraphrase" is made of the particular portion of text and the explication is examined with the total uring: corresponds more or less to the procedures used in classical content analysis and is also viewed as the most crucial content analysis, the goal of which is to filter out a particular structure from the material. The first stage is the determination of the units of analysis, after which the the structuring are established on some theoretical basis and the features of the system of categories are fixed.
In the a first appraisal of the material the data locations are marked, and in a second scrutiny these are processed and necessary the system of categories is re-examined and revised, which necessitates a reappraisal of the material. The central part of the process—structuring—is derived from classical content analysis, because here, too, coding and evaluation are set up and arranged in a schema of categories (titscher et al. However, the ence between classical content analysis and structuring within qualitative content analysis is the development and the coding agenda7). Since the category system be adjusted at any point of the analysis, the trial cycle becomes redundant (gläser & laudel, 1999, p. 1 shows the basic proceeding of qualitative content analysis from the initial theory to the final analysis and 1: basic proceeding of qualitative content analysis (source: author based on gläser & laudel, 1999, p. Into greater detail, this process of mayring's qualitative content analysis can also be divided into nine (mayring, 2003, pp. The procedures of qualitative content analysis mayring (2000a, ) hallmarks the following two approaches as developing a category system and finding the appropriate text components as a result: inductive category development ive category application. Category tative content analysis does not provide satisfactory answers to the question where the categories are derived from,And how the system of categories is developed. Category ive category application works with previously formulated, theoretically derived aspects of analysis, which are connection with the text. The qualitative step of analysis consists of a methodologically controlled assignment of ry to a passage of text (mayring, 2000a, ). Quality criteria and validation kind of social research asserts its claims to fulfill certain quality criteria for measuring and collecting data. In fact, the research strategy that is regularly pursued in content analysis is governed by ional criteria of validity and reliability, where the latter is a precondition for the former (but not vice versa) ( al. Two specific problems of content analysis that are often discussed in this context are problems of problems of reliability (titscher et al. As a result, inference in content analysis confines itself only to specific features of external and internal ms of reliability: here, particular attention is paid to the trustworthiness of the coding. Validity can only be used as a quality criterion if predictions can reasonably be made from the material (in this case usually easy and significant). Construct validity relates, for instance, to previous success with similar constructs, established models and theories, and representative ity refers to whether the same results are obtained in a renewed application of the analytical tool to the same text and reproducibility is the extent to which the analysis achieves the same results under different circumstances, for instance with . It can be measured through inter-coder reliability for which a range of measures and indices have been y, accuracy assumes stability and reproducibility and denotes the extent to which the analysis meets a particular functional standard. The main idea behind this concept is to discursively achieve mutual consent and accordance about the results analysis between the researchers and the researched. Thus, it draws on the degree to which the original data entative of a larger population (ibid). The further development of new quality criteria calls for an analysis of where and what other errors can be made or occur in (conducting) content analysis (ibid). E]mpirical research advances only when it is accompanied by theory and logical inquiry and not when treated as a data collection endeavor" (yin, 2003a, ). Section explores and discusses the possibilities of applying qualitative content analysis as a (text) in case study research and thus tries to find an answer to the research question initially posed (see section 2. Is of developing a more effective method for the capturing and fixing of social phenomena in order to realize a more accurate analysis and explanation. Just like multiple viewpoints allow for greater accuracy in geometry, (organizational) researchers "can improve the accuracy judgments by collecting different kinds of data bearing on the same phenomenon" (jick, 1979, p. Data different methods but bearing on the same issue are part of what is called the "multi-method approach": "different methods have different strengths and weaknesses. The case of using qualitative content analysis in case study research, triangulation takes actually place on two . On the first and more obvious level, data is triangulated by integrating different material and evidence (see section. Often also collected by using various methods—as well as by integrating quantitative and qualitative steps of analysis. On second level, triangulation takes place by applying a method of analysis (qualitative content analysis). Has not been particularly developed for this purpose to a different research design (case study research). Besides, we also saw that case study research has a on in generating hypotheses and build theory. Eisenhardt (1989) states that "[a]nalyzing data is the heart of from case studies, but it is both the most difficult and the least codified part of the process" (p. In fact,A theory or theoretical framework first emerges through the inductive approach of studying an empirical case or object, h a deductive process. 2, philipp mayring's qualitative content analysis could an inductive approach and offers a range of rule-based procedures for a systematic analysis of data material. Hence,Qualitative content analysis might be an appropriate analysis and interpretation method for case study research. As a fact, its quantitative counterpart—classical content analysis—is repeatedly mentioned as a method of analyzing data context of conducting case study research (cf. 2002) state that techniques content analysis may be used "to transform what is essentially qualitative evidence into some sort of quantitative evidence". We stated that mayring's qualitative content analysis tries to overcome these shortcomings of classical t analysis by applying a systematic, theory-guided approach to text analysis using a category system. Besides it advantages of quantitative content analysis but at the same time apply a more qualitative text interpretation. Therefore,It can be argued that qualitative content analysis could prove to be a useful tool for analyzing data material in case ch.
In fact, the contribution of using qualitative content analysis in case study research will be demonstrated on of the following points: . Openness and ability to deal with of the strengths of qualitative content analysis is the way it tries to synthesize openness—as claimed by the ch paradigm—and theory-guided investigation—usually demanded by the hypothetical-deductive paradigm. In fact, openness, qualitative content analysis is strictly controlled methodologically and the material is analyzed in a s (see section 4. Qualitative is takes a holistic and comprehensive approach towards analyzing data material and thus achieves to (almost) and cover the complexity of the social situations examined and social data material derived from them. At the same time,Qualitative content analysis uses a rule-based and methodologically controlled approach in order to deal with the gradually reduce it. The procedures of summary, explication and structuring step-by-step reduce complexity and the main points of analysis in an iterative process. Therefore, qualitative content analysis perfectly fits the case study research: helping to understand complex social phenomena (see also section 3. Theory-guided just mentioned theory-guided analysis as one of the special strengths of qualitative content analysis (see above, section. The important point here is the same as with case study research: "the central idea is that researchers e theory and data—iterating toward a theory which closely fits the data" (eisenhardt, 1989, p. Besides, an e of theory building is comparison of the emergent concepts, theory or hypotheses with the extant literature the emergent theory to existing literature enhances the internal validity, generalizability, and theoretical level building from case study research (eisenhardt, 1989, pp. That is why gläser and laudel (1999, abstract) qualitative content analysis could be "an interesting form of data analysis for projects that aim to start from contribute to it. Guided analysis also offers the chance to compare and complement the primary data collected within the research secondary data. This analysis of complementing secondary help to ensure the quality of content analysis, especially validity (mayring, 2003, p. Integration of of the key features of qualitative content analysis in contrast to classical quantitative content analysis is that t is also central to the interpretation and analysis of the material. This is again in order to achieve a holistic and comprehensive analysis of complex social we have seen in section 3. The key feature of the case study approach is not method or data but the emphasis on ses as they occur in their context" (hartley, 1994, p. Why" rather than "what" or "how much" are best suited to the case study strategy (ibid. The object of qualitative content analysis can basically be any kind of recorded communication,I. This in a comprehensive study which aims at analyzing different kinds of data material, the same method can be applied ent types of evidence—a major advantage not only from a pragmatic point of view, but also as far as quality concerned. Major strength of case study data collection is the opportunity to use many different sources of evidence because the multiple sources of evidence in case studies allows an investigator to address a broader range of historical, attitudinal,And behavioral issues (yin, 2003a, pp. In fact, gillham (2000) states that case study "is a main method," within which different sub-methods are used: interviews, observations, document and record analysis, work (p. Qualitative or expert interviews are a very common field of application for qualitative content analysis (cf. According to yin (2003a) one of the most important case study information is the interview: "most commonly, case study interviews are of an open-ended nature, in which you can ask key respondents about the facts of a matter as well as their opinions about events" (yin, 2003a, p. Therefore, qualitative content analysis offers a rule-based, theory-guided method for analyzing ripts, just in the way it is required by the principles of case study research. Mayring (2000a, ) contends that qualitative content analysis can be combined with other qualitative is certainly a great advantage when dealing with various, heterogeneous types of data material. Qualitative content analysis preserves the advantages of classical t analysis, and thus also includes quantitative steps of analysis. According to gillham (2000), "[c]ase study research does not equate qualitative (descriptive, interpretative) data only. They are predominant, but quantitative data and its analysis can add to the overall picture" (p. Jick (1979), "[q]ualitative data and analysis function as the glue that cements the interpretation of multimethod results". Moreover, the combination of qualitative and quantitative analyses has also been addressed in the field of case ch (see above, sections 3. In fact,Triangulation by integrating different material/evidence as well as quantitative and qualitative steps of analysis, chers to be more confident of their results and can also lead to a synthesis or integration of theories (cf. 2000) content analysis will always be used if communicative content is of greatest importance,If operational schemata of categories can be formulated in advance or if the analysis is concerned only with the lexicon of. The procedures of qualitative content analysis seem less appropriate, if the research question is highly open-ended,Explorative, variable and working with categories would be a restriction, or if a more holistic, not step-by-step analysis is planned (mayring, 2000b, p. In fact, mayring (2002) recommends his qualitative content the case of theory-guided text analysis but rather not in the case of merely explorative-interpretive interpretation material (p. Due to the fact that qualitative content analysis first extracts the relevant parts of the (text) material analyzes them (cf. But not least, when using qualitative content analysis in case study research, one should be aware of the fact that "[r]eplicating. Paper tried to explore and discuss the possibilities of using qualitative content analysis in case study research. Ghted the strengths of qualitative content analysis as a method that achieves to respect the credos of openness -guided analysis at the same time. In fact, with its rule-based logic and methodologically controlled step-by-step analysis it manages to combine the advantages of classical quantitative content analysis with a qualitatively ch taking also context and other important points into consideration. Therefore, qualitative content analysis viewed as a comprehensive approach to data analysis, which seems to be especially suitable for case study research.
Qualitative content analysis is still a young discipline and further development and improvement might be appropriate as some of the amendments, critiques and limitations of mayring's approach show (see above sections 4. Therefore, the author strongly recommends all are conducting case studies to use and apply qualitative content analysis in their research endeavors. In their recent work on expert interviews and qualitative content analysis, gläser and laudel (2004) state that they (still). I am indebted to an anonymous reviewer for pointing out the question whether the basic methodological assumptions of approaches (qualitative content analysis and case study research) fit together. Interestingly, yin (2003b) in his companion book to his case ok (yin, 2003a) speaks of the "case study method" (pp. I am indebted to an anonymous reviewer who—very correctly—pointed the following out to me: "this statement is formulated : not all units of analysis (depends on the sort of unit and the concrete technique) must be coded; and inductive not operationalizations of variables; but it is true, that the interpretative but rule guided process of assigning text portions is crucial for qualitative content analysis. Thousand oaks: n kohlbacher, associate research partner, department of change management & management development, vienna university of economics ss ch interests: knowledge management, international business, international marketing, consumer behavior, ch methods, case study university of economics and business administration(wirtschaftsuniversität wien)department of change management & management development augasse 2-6a-1090 vienna, austria. Rnablast (basic local alignment search tool)blast (stand-alone)e-utilitiesgenbankgenbank: bankitgenbank: sequingenbank: tbl2asngenome workbenchinfluenza virusnucleotide databasepopsetprimer-blastprosplignreference sequence (refseq)refseqgenesequence read archive (sra)spligntrace archiveunigeneall dna & rna resources... Softwareblast (basic local alignment search tool)blast (stand-alone)cn3dconserved domain search service (cd search)e-utilitiesgenbank: bankitgenbank: sequingenbank: tbl2asngenome protmapgenome workbenchprimer-blastprosplignpubchem structure searchsnp submission toolsplignvector alignment search tool (vast)all data & software resources... Structuresbiosystemscn3dconserved domain database (cdd)conserved domain search service (cd search)structure (molecular modeling database)vector alignment search tool (vast)all domains & structures resources... 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Basic local alignment search tool)blast (stand-alone)blast link (blink)conserved domain database (cdd)conserved domain search service (cd search)genome protmaphomologeneprotein clustersall homology resources... Utilitiesjournals in ncbi databasesmesh databasencbi handbookncbi help manualncbi news & blogpubmedpubmed central (pmc)pubmed clinical queriespubmed healthall literature resources... Basic local alignment search tool)blast (stand-alone)blast link (blink)conserved domain database (cdd)conserved domain search service (cd search)e-utilitiesprosplignprotein clustersprotein databasereference sequence (refseq)all proteins resources... Analysisblast (basic local alignment search tool)blast (stand-alone)blast link (blink)conserved domain search service (cd search)genome protmapgenome workbenchinfluenza virusprimer-blastprosplignsplignall sequence analysis resources... Of genomic structural variation (dbvar)database of genotypes and phenotypes (dbgap)database of single nucleotide polymorphisms (dbsnp)snp submission toolall variation resources... Toall how tochemicals & bioassaysdna & rnadata & softwaredomains & structuresgenes & expressiongenetics & medicinegenomes & mapshomologyliteratureproteinssequence analysistaxonomytraining & tutorialsvariationabout ncbi accesskeysmy ncbisign in to ncbisign : abstractformatsummarysummary (text)abstractabstract (text)medlinexmlpmid listapplysend tochoose destinationfileclipboardcollectionse-mailordermy bibliographycitation managerformatsummary (text)abstract (text)medlinexmlpmid listcsvcreate file1 selected item: 25976531formatsummarysummary (text)abstractabstract (text)medlinexmlpmid listmesh and other datae-mailsubjectadditional texte-maildidn't get the message? Ative case study data analysis: an example from on c1, murphy k, shaw d, casey information1school of nursing and midwifery, national university of ireland, galway, republic of ctaim: to illustrate an approach to data analysis in qualitative case study ound: there is often little detail in case study research about how data were analysed. However, it is important that comprehensive analysis procedures are used because there are often large sets of data from multiple sources of evidence. Furthermore, the ability to describe in detail how the analysis was conducted ensures rigour in reporting qualitative sources: the research example used is a multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Data analysis was conducted using a framework guided by the four stages of analysis outlined by morse ( 1994 ): comprehending, synthesising, theorising and recontextualising. The specific strategies for analysis in these stages centred on the work of miles and huberman ( 1994 ), which has been successfully used in case study research. The data were managed using nvivo methods: literature examining qualitative data analysis was reviewed and strategies illustrated by the case study example provided. Discussion each stage of the analysis framework is described with illustration from the research example for the purpose of highlighting the benefits of a systematic approach to handling large data sets from multiple sion: by providing an example of how each stage of the analysis was conducted, it is hoped that researchers will be able to consider the benefits of such an approach to their own case study ations for research/practice: this paper illustrates specific strategies that can be employed when conducting data analysis in case study research and other qualitative research ds: case study data analysis; case study research methodology; clinical skills research; qualitative case study methodology; qualitative data analysis; qualitative researchpmid: 25976531 doi: 10. E1307 [indexed for medline] sharemesh termsmesh termscase-control studies*data interpretation, statistical*humansnursing research/methods*qualitative research*research designpubmed commons home. Commentshow to join pubmed commonshow to cite this comment:Ncbi > literature > everything about business analytics learn analytics using a business case study : part way to learn analytics is through experience and solving case studies. Hence, you want to collect the most granular details of your customer behavior and build strategy ss case layout :This business case have been broken down into 3 articles. How do you use data with advanced analytics to make your marketing/sales startegies more targeted? Let’s try to understand as the owner of the busienss what all data sources do you need. Transactions table :You rent out video cds and the most important data for you will be transactional data. Movie id : identifying the ing is a sample transactional data set :If you have transaction table, you basically have the linkage between the customers and the products. Engagement tracker :All the three tables together can be used to create any kind of analysis to build marketing and sales strategy. Product id : id of product in e the data sizes become huge with time, it is always recommended to keep some monthly snapshots handy. Following is a possible way to achieve the same :Imagine how easy this analysis gets if you have the derived monthly snapshot article till now focuses on use of traditional relational databases. They add a lot of flexibility to your database, where you can change the schema very kind of flexibility is required in case your data formats can change and you can not have much control on it. Before we go in these details, a typical graph schema in this case would look something like:Blue nodes represent customers, red represent movies and green represents various package available. Like all data model designs, there are various alternates to this design and you should choose the best depending on your you find the article useful? 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Provides nice insight to basic problem in analytical you share any other weblinks/forum where more of alike case studies can be practiced by analytics aspirants? Following is one of the case study published on analytics vidhya before, which might interest you :Please subscribe to our rss feed / email subscription for staying up to tuned for the 3 rd part of cd-shop case 13, 2015 at 12:39 article! A reply cancel email address will not be 100000+ data scientists in our e awesome tips, guides, infographics and become expert at:Machine learning / deep ct with thousands of data science professionals across the globe!