Causes of teenage pregnancy in south african schools

Pmcid: pmc3598281adolescent pregnancy and associated factors in south african youthg mchunu,1 k peltzer,1,2 b tutshana,1 and l seutlwadi11hiv/aids, tb and sti (hast) research programme, human sciences research council, pretoria and durban, south africa2university of limpopo, turfloop, south africa*corresponding author: prof karl peltzer hiv/aids, tb and sti (hast) human sciences research council private bag x41, pretoria 0001 south africa email: @reztlepkauthor information ► copyright and license information ►copyright © makerere medical school, uganda 2012this article has been cited by other articles in ctbackgroundadolescent pregnancy, occurring in girls aged 10–19 years, remains a serious health and social problem worldwide, and has been associated with numerous risk factors evident in the young people's family, peer, school, and neighbourhood iveto assess the prevalence of adolescent pregnancy and associated factors in the south african context, as part of a population-based household survey that formed part of an evaluation of the impact of lovelife, south africa's national hiv prevention campaign for young sa cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling approach. Women, from four of nine provinces in south africa (eastern cape, gauteng, kwazulu-natal and mpumalanga). In multivariable analysis among women it was found that being employed or unemployed, greater poverty, having higher sexually permissive attitudes and scoring higher on the contraceptive or the condom use index was associated with adolescent pregnancy, and among men wanting the pregnancy and having a sense of the future were associated with adolescent sionadolescent pregnancy was found to be high in this sample of south african youth. Multiple factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy have been identified which can be used in targeting young people on the prevention of adolescent ds: adolescent pregnancy, youth between 18–24 years, lovelife youth programme exposure, south africaintroductionadolescent pregnancy, occurring in girls aged 10–19 years, remains a serious health and social problem worldwide, and has been associated with numerous risk factors evident in the young people's family, peer, school, and neighbourhood contexts. While hiv is one of the unintended consequences of unprotected sexual intercourse, pregnancy is another indicator that young people are having unprotected ce from sub-saharan africa indicates that 35% of pregnancies among 15–19 year olds were unplanned, unwanted or untimed and that the teenagers' relationships were unstable. A study conducted in soweto, south africa, found that 23% of pregnancies carried by 13–16 year old young women and 14. 8adolescent pregnancy interferes with young women's educational attainment, resulting in fewer job opportunities for young women. 15 access to reproductive health services is another factor which contributes to adolescent pregnancy since young people always want to be able access sexual and reproductive health information and services without being exposed to public stigma. Many studies on teenage pregnancy have focused on the practices of adolescents in general and outcomes of their pregnancies, but very limited understanding of factors that place particular adolescents at increased risk of teenage pregnancy. Therefore, there is a need for studies that focus on factors that put adolescents at risk of teenage pregnancy from both female and male partners. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence adolescent pregnancy and associated factors in the south african context, as part of a large population-based household survey that formed part of an evaluation of the impact of lovelife, south africa's national hiv prevention campaign for young sample and procedurewe conducted a cross-sectional population-based household survey using a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling approach. The survey included persons of ages 18 to 24 years living in south african households of the four (out of nine) selected provinces, kwazulu-natal, mpumalanga, eastern cape and gauteng province, providing an urban-rural representation of south l approval for the study was obtained from the human sciences research council research ethics committee. Participants signed informed consent esthe main outcome variable was adolescent pregnancy, for females (12–19 years) and for males had impregnated a girl when they were an adolescent (12–19 years). History information referred to the number of pregnancies (including miscarried and terminated pregnancies or pregnancies where the baby had died after birth) a respondent has ever had or he has had with his partner; adolescent pregnancy was defined as below 20 years of age. Associations between key outcome adolescent pregnancy and individual, social and structural variables and programme exposure were evaluated calculating odds ratios (or). Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was used for evaluation of the impact of explanatory variables for key outcome of adolescent pregnancy (binary dependent variables). 1individual, social and structural variables and adolescent pregnancy of study sample by genderreasons for adolescent pregnancynineteen percent of respondents got pregnant because they wanted to prove their maturity or identity as women. Got pregnant the first time because they did not understand the risks involved in what they were doing or did not understand how pregnancy happens. Ever terminated a pregnancy or persuaded someone to do related perceptionsyoung women were asked about gender related perceptions, which may entrech unequal power relations between men and women. Of adolescent pregnancyin multivariable analysis among women it was found that being employed or unemployed, greater poverty, having higher sexually permissive attitudes and scoring higher on the contraceptive or condom use index was associated with adolescent multivariable analysis among men wanting the pregnancy and having a sense of future were associated with adolescent pregnancy (see tables 2 and ​and33). 2association between individual, social and structural variables, risk status and behaviour and adolescent pregnancy of young womentable 3association between individual, social and structural variables, risk status and behaviour and adolescent pregnancy of male partnerdiscussionwhile previous research findings have suggested that individual factors and other predictors such as poverty, low educational level, contributed to young women engaging in risky sexual behaviour, leading to unplanned pregnancy in adolescents,2,3,7,8, 21 the findings of this study, showed that more than half of female respondents (74. Of the female respondents did not understand how pregnancy happens or did not think about risks involved in engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse (which could explain the high number of unwanted pregnancies). This finding is a concern because it shows that young south african youth still engage in risky sexual behaviours, not only due to lack of knowledge but due to unfavourable decisions. It is worth noting that these respondents are between the ages of 18–24 years, thus it is highly unexpected that the majority of them do not understand the risks involved or how pregnancy happens particularly when taking into account number of various intervention programmes including life orientation (which was introduced in 2000) that have been r to the findings of the department of health study,22 the findings of the current study did not confirm child-support grant as a possible enticement for girls to become pregnant. 5, 6 our findings however did indicate that lack of employment and job opportunities was associated with teenage pregnancy. Multiple factors contributing to adolescent pregnancy have been identified which can be used in targeting young people on the prevention of adolescent ledgementsthis research was a collaborative project between lovelife and the hsrc, and was made possible by the henry j. Klein jd, american academy of pediatrics committee on adolescence adolescent pregnancy: current trends and issues. Ecological contexts in adolescent pregnancy: the role of individual, sociodemographic, familial and relational variables in understanding risk of occurrence and adjustment patterns.

Explain 4 causes of teenage pregnancy in south african schools

Risk factors for teenage pregnancy amongst african adolescents in metropolitan cape town: a case control study. Keep them in school: the importance of education as a protective factor against hiv infection among young south african women. Contraception use and pregnancy among 15- 24 year old south african women: a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. I think condoms are good but, aai, i hate those things’: condom use among adolescents and young people in a southern african township. The effects of an abusive primary partner on the condom use and sexual negotiation practices of african-american women. Transactional sex among women in soweto, south africa: prevalence, risk factors and association with hiv infection. 2001;21(2):35–es from african health sciences are provided here courtesy of makerere university medical s:article | pubreader | epub (beta) | pdf (129k) | ncbi web site requires javascript to tionresourceshow toabout ncbi accesskeysmy ncbisign in to ncbisign l listafr health sciv. 2001;21(2):35–es from african health sciences are provided here courtesy of makerere university medical s:article | pubreader | epub (beta) | pdf (129k) | m content from before 2017 is now available for everyone! Department of basic education briefed the committee on teenage pregnancy in south africa, specifically focusing on school-going learners. The human sciences research council’s teenage pregnancy report was released on 28 august 2009, based on a study it had conducted on behalf of the department of education. The report showed that there was a lack of vital statistics in south africa but that overall fertility had been declining for the past fifty years. Teenage fertility was declining at a slow pace, due to spikes in fertility related to hiv/aids having overtaken teenage pregnancy as a priority. The department stated that there was a perception in the country that there was an upsurge in teenage pregnancy, because the pregnancies were seen more often in schools, in communities and amongst those collecting the child support grant. The rise in learner pregnancy was most likely the result of improved reporting rather than a real increase. Learner pregnancy rates were higher in schools located in poor areas and in schools that were poorly resourced. Termination of pregnancy by teens had increased over time and there was in fact a low uptake of the child support grant among teens. Data showed that an increase in education resulted in a decrease in fertility and that pregnancy was no longer causing students to drop out of school, although dropping out was a significant risk factor for early pregnancy and hiv. In south africa, only about a third of teen mothers returned to department noted that the primary focus must be on prevention of pregnancies, but second chances should be made available to prevent the loss of human potential. The department also promoted community-based interventions, the rolling out of adolescent friendly services, promoting open communication between parents and children and increasing the coverage in the media with a distinct focus on pregnancy. A comprehensive strategy would be developed for the management and prevention of learner pregnancy and it would explore the policy options relating to teen pregnancy in education. The strategy would include developing tools to identify high risk schools, developing early warning systems for schools to identify students likely to drop out, developing monitoring and evaluation tools, improving life skills programmes, and strengthening and supporting peer committee was concerned about what the policy was towards learners who were pregnant and still in school. Concerns were expressed over the fact that there was an increased risk of teen pregnancy when girls were involved in a relationship with older males. There was still an issue that teen mothers were often exposed to stigma, and this was one of the reasons they did not return to schools, and members asked if the pregnant teens were given any advice, as they had to take responsibility for their child. Another member questioned whether there really was no link between teen pregnancy and the child grants, noting that learners may not reveal the truth, and that experience on the ground had shown that the grants were being accessed, but were not used for the welfare of the child. Members noted that there was not any adequate data regarding the termination of pregnancy, which was needed to help the committee to understand who was accessing the service and why, and also recommended  that psychologists and social workers, many of whom were retired but would be available, be introduced in the schools to address the life-skills issue. Members also noted that most of the difficulties preceded pregnancy, as there were cultural and social issues to contend with. The committee supported initiatives that focused on values and character ncies amongst teenagers, with a specific focus on school-going learners: department of basic education (dbe or the department) chairperson ms chohan stated that this was a very important meeting, following the release of the report on teen pregnancy in the country. Saadhna panday, senior researcher, dbe, tabled the report, and briefed members on the state of teenage pregnancy in south africa (sa).

The dbe adopted a rights-based approach to the matter and introduced guidelines to prevent and manage teen purpose of the study was to critically analyse and review the data on teenage pregnancy to focus on learner pregnancy. Teenage fertility was declining at a slower pace due to spikes in fertility related to national epochs such as hiv/aids having overtaken teenage pregnancy as a priority. Fertility declined by 10% between 1996 and 2001, and declined by a further 10% by department stated that there was a perception in the country that there was an upsurge in teenage pregnancy. This was because it was now seen more often at schools, in communities and when collecting the child support grant (csg). There was confluence between issues of morality, strategies to reduce teen pregnancy, enforcement of responsibilities of young mothers and assistance given by society to children of teen mothers. There were more teen pregnancies in african and coloured groups compared to indian and white department warned that it was missing data from some provinces. Termination of pregnancy by teens had increased over time and there was a low uptake of csg among teens. Data showed that an increase in education resulted in a decrease in pregnancies, and that pregnancy resulted from school encounters, rather than caused students to drop out of school. Dropping out of school at an early stage was, however, a significant risk factor leading to higher statistics in both early pregnancy and hiv. In sa, only about a third of teen mothers returned to ation of pregnancy was legalised in 1996. The decline in fertility was related to an increase in access to family planning services resulting in the use of contraception, the increase in access to education and a shift in attitudes towards pregnancy. The department also wanted to target high-risk groups, retain learners in schools and involve them in community work. A seminar was held on 28 august 2009, where the report on teenage pregnancy in sa was presented, and responses from learners were heard. This strategy would explore the policy options relating to teen pregnancy in education, include developing tools to identify high risk schools, develop early warning systems for schools to identify students likely to drop out, develop monitoring and evaluation tools, improve life skills programmes, and strengthen and support peer -chairperson chohan asked the department to clarify what its policy was towards learners who were pregnant and still in school. She asked if the current rate of pregnancy referred to both teens in the schooling system and those out of school, and whether there were separate figures for pregnant teens that were in the schooling system, and those who were not in the schooling system when they fell pregnant, as this information would be important. She wanted an explanation on what “service learning” panday stated that teen fertility was measured using national data, so it represented both sets of teenagers, both within and outside the schooling system. This was why the department tried to analyse the emis data that asked the question about whether schools supported learner pregnancies. A guideline was needed for schools to show them how to deal with learner pregnancies. Schools needed to engage with parents on a one-on-one panday explained that the two year period for teen mothers to return to school was proposed as there was the need for teen mothers to take care of their child after giving birth, which must, however, be weighed up against their need for education. The two-year plan was not a policy; it was simply a measure that was ndebele stated that many parents took their children out of schools. The department had to find a way to balance the values of the schools and the values of panday stated that service learning was part of the academic programme where learners were asked to go out and engage in community projects. Having a sense of purpose and direction could serve as protection against teen n kganyago (udm) stated that the pie chart in the presentation depicting the contribution to teen pregnancy by age did not say anything about the fathers. When young women were involved with men three years their senior, there was an increased risk of teen pregnancy, and both were at more or less equivalent levels of development. The study showed that when young mothers returned to school, the education protected them against falling pregnant a second time soon after the first pregnancy. Some mothers were not sent back to the same schools that they attended prior to the pregnancies. The method had proven to be successful as an intervention to retain learners in panday spoke to the matter of sending young mothers away to other schools. The proposal did not focus on post-pregnancy, but on pre-pregnancy ndebele added that the study reinforced the need for a life-skills programme that focused on values. The strengthening of life-skills programmes was not just about sexuality, it was about looking at positive values so learners would be able make positive choices and influence their peers in a positive -chairperson chohan stated that life-skills programmes at schools were not prioritised.

Schools and the government needed to look at programmes that focused on character building, and looked at basic lessons of respect, loyalty, and honesty, being values that were shared across different religions and communities. Member stated that the committee should look more closely at the statement that there was no link between teen pregnancy and the csg. She thought that churches’ programmes, availability of sports facilities and rural development could play a role in preventing teen ndebele stated that although poverty might not be the main reason for teen pregnancy, it was certainly one of the risk factors. She agreed with the need for churches, sports, and rural development to play a role in decreasing teen pregnancy. This problem could not be solved by single sectors of panday did not think that the matter of the link between the csg and teen pregnancy could be solved in this meeting. The data that was taken from the south african social security agency (sassa) was linked to national trends in teenage fertility. Young boys had to be educated as well as there was a shared responsibility in having safe c dudley (acdp) stated that there was a model or programme that kwazulu-natal used that enabled parents to speak to the youth about all the important issues concerning sexuality and pregnancy. She asked if the choice on termination of pregnancy act (ctop) contributed to the decrease or if there was more legislation involved in ndebele stated that the department was looking at a multitude of second-chance opportunities for out of school youth. There was an entire package of family planning services that helped decrease the teen pregnancy rate. The ctop act could have made a contribution, but it was more likely the increased access to contraception that was more j skosana (anc) stated that a policy had to be developed that spoke to the manner in which schools had to deal with pregnant learners. This was a serious h malgas (anc) agreed that proper guidelines needed to be in place that would state how long a pregnant learner was able to attend schools. She stated that there was another problem that it was sometimes the teachers in schools that were impregnating their students, and perhaps also passing on hiv. If pregnant learners were allowed to attend schools, then systems would be needed in case learners needed to access healthcare services. It was important that all entities should come together in service of schools, and to balance the rights of learners in ndebele said that the department was working with the moral regeneration movement. However, following up on mr kganyago’s suggestion, she said that there were many retired social workers and nurses in the community that could be utilised in schools. Nurses and social workers could help to identify problems that those outside of schools could smiles noted that there was a shortage of strategies on how to retain learners in schools. The department of health (doh), the department of social development (dsd) and the dbe had to demonstrate to the committee how their services and programmes would converge in schools. She was heartened to hear that teen pregnancy was not such a problem as had been thought, but stressed that the cultural and social issues remained and must be addressed. The committee supported initiatives that focused on values and character meeting was this this committee and get free email alerts whenever we get new information about e pregnancy amongst school learners, and in sa generally: departmental e pregnancy e pregnancy in don't have attendance info for this committee 's wrong with this page? Over 1100 teenagers, mostly aged 18 or 19,[1] give birth every day in the united fication and external e pregnancy, also known as adolescent pregnancy, is pregnancy in females under the age of 20. There are, however, additional concerns for those under 15 of age as they are less likely to be physically developed enough to sustain a healthy pregnancy or to give birth. Developed countries, teenage pregnancies are associated with social issues, including lower educational levels, poverty, and other negative life outcomes in children of teenage mothers. Teenage pregnancy in developed countries is usually outside of marriage, and carries a social stigma in many communities and cultures. 9] by contrast, teenage parents in developing countries are often married, and their pregnancies welcomed by family and society. However, in these societies, early pregnancy may combine with malnutrition and poor health care to cause medical used in combination, educational interventions and promotion of birth control can reduce the risk of unintended teenage pregnancies. Society and age of the mother is determined by the easily verified date when the pregnancy ends, not by the estimated date of conception. 12] similarly, statistics on the mother's marital status are determined by whether she is married at the end of the pregnancy, not at the time of ing to the united nations population fund (unfpa), "pregnancies among girls less than 18 years of age have irreparable consequences. 13] health consequences include not yet being physically ready for pregnancy and childbirth leading to complications and malnutrition as the majority of adolescents tend to come from lower-income households.

13] teenage pregnancy also affects girls' education and income potential as many are forced to drop out of school which ultimately threatens future opportunities and economic prospects. Studies have examined the socioeconomic, medical, and psychological impact of pregnancy and parenthood in teens. Life outcomes for teenage mothers and their children vary; other factors, such as poverty or social support, may be more important than the age of the mother at the birth. Teenage parents who can rely on family and community support, social services and child-care support are more likely to continue their education and get higher paying jobs as they progress with their education. This means not focusing on changing the behaviour of girls but addressing the underlying reasons of adolescent pregnancy such as poverty, gender inequality, social pressures and coercion. Teenage pregnancy puts young women at risk for health issues, economic, social and financial issues. United states and united kingdom had some of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the developed a young mother in a first world country can affect one's education. 17] however, recent studies have found that many of these mothers had already dropped out of school before becoming pregnant, but those in school at the time of their pregnancy were as likely to graduate as their peers. Less than one third of teenage mothers receive any form of child support, vastly increasing the likelihood of turning to the government for assistance. 17] one study found that, in 1988, 60% of teenage mothers were impoverished at the time of giving birth. 17] a study of 100 teenaged mothers in the united kingdom found that only 11% received a salary, while the remaining 89% were unemployed. 22] most british teenage mothers live in poverty, with nearly half in the bottom fifth of the income distribution. 23] teenage women who are pregnant or mothers are seven times more likely to commit suicide than other teenagers. 24] professor john ermisch at the institute of social and economic research at essex university and dr roger ingham, director of the centre of sexual health at southampton university – found that comparing teenage mothers with other girls with similarly deprived social-economic profiles, bad school experiences and low educational aspirations, the difference in their respective life chances was negligible. To the national campaign to prevent teen pregnancy, nearly 1 in 4 teen mothers will experience another pregnancy within two years of having their first. 27] pregnancy and giving birth significantly increases the chance that these mothers will become high school dropouts and as many as half have to go on welfare. Academic performance in the children of teenage mothers has also been noted, with many of the children being held back a grade level, scoring lower on standardized tests, and/or failing to graduate from secondary school. 17][34] sons born to teenage mothers are three times more likely to serve time in prison. 6][17][36] in a rural hospital in west bengal, teenage mothers between 15 and 19 years old were more likely to have anemia, preterm delivery, and a baby with a lower birth weight than mothers between 20 and 24 years old. Many of the health-issues associated with teenage mothers appear to result from lack of access to adequate medical care. 41][42] complications of pregnancy result in the deaths of an estimated 70,000 teen girls in developing countries each year. 5] the world health organization estimates that the risk of death following pregnancy is twice as high for women aged 15–19 than for those aged 20–24. Illegal abortion also holds many risks for teenage girls in areas such as sub-saharan africa. Of teenage pregnancies are higher in societies where it is traditional for girls to marry young and where they are encouraged to bear children as soon as they are able. For example, in some sub-saharan african countries, early pregnancy is often seen as a blessing because it is proof of the young woman's fertility. In the indian subcontinent, early marriage and pregnancy is more common in traditional rural communities than in cities. 44] the lack of education on safe sex, whether it is from parents, schools, or otherwise, is a cause of teenage pregnancy. Many teenagers are not taught about methods of birth control and how to deal with peers who pressure them into having sex before they are ready.

Societies where adolescent marriage is less common, such as many developed countries, young age at first intercourse and lack of use of contraceptive methods (or their inconsistent and/or incorrect use; the use of a method with a high failure rate is also a problem) may be factors in teen pregnancy. Countries with low levels of teenagers giving birth accept sexual relationships among teenagers and provide comprehensive and balanced information about sexuality. 51] if the younger sisters of teenage parents babysit the children, they have an increased risk of getting pregnant themselves. 53] the probability of the younger sister having a teenage pregnancy went from one in five to two in five if the elder sister had a baby as a teenager. A 2005 kaiser family foundation study of us teenagers, 29% of teens reported feeling pressure to have sex, 33% of sexually active teens reported "being in a relationship where they felt things were moving too fast sexually", and 24% had "done something sexual they didn’t really want to do". 57][58] the increased sexual activity among adolescents is manifested in increased teenage pregnancies and an increase in sexually transmitted of drug and alcohol use[edit]. If so, it is unknown if the drugs themselves directly influence teenagers to engage in riskier behavior, or whether teenagers who engage in drug use are more likely to engage in sex. The drugs with the strongest evidence linking them to teenage pregnancy are alcohol, cannabis, "ecstasy" and other substituted amphetamines. The drugs with the least evidence to support a link to early pregnancy are opioids, such as heroin, morphine, and oxycodone, of which a well-known effect is the significant reduction of libido – it appears that teenage opioid users have significantly reduced rates of conception compared to their non-using, and alcohol, "ecstasy", cannabis, and amphetamine using peers. Article: precocious who mature early are more likely to engage in sexual intercourse at a younger age, which in turn puts them at greater risk of teenage pregnancy. Article: birth cents may lack knowledge of, or access to, conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be too embarrassed or frightened to seek such information. In 1998, the government of the united kingdom set a target to halve the under-18 pregnancy rate by 2010. The united states, according to the 2002 national surveys of family growth, sexually active adolescent women wishing to avoid pregnancy were less likely than older women to use contraceptives (18% of 15–19-year-olds used no contraceptives, versus 10. A study for the guttmacher institute, researchers found that from a comparative perspective, however, teenage pregnancy rates in the united states are less nuanced than one might initially assume. Rates arise primarily because of less, and possibly less-effective, contraceptive use by sexually active teenagers. 59] long-acting contraceptives such as intrauterine devices, subcutaneous contraceptive implants, and contraceptive injections (such as depo-provera and combined injectable contraceptive), which prevent pregnancy for months or years at a time, are more effective in women who have trouble remembering to take pills or using barrier methods ing to the encyclopedia of women's health, published in 2004, there has been an increased effort to provide contraception to adolescents via family planning services and school-based health, such as hiv prevention education. Also: sexual s from south africa have found that 11–20% of pregnancies in teenagers are a direct result of rape, while about 60% of teenage mothers had unwanted sexual experiences preceding their pregnancy. Studies have indicated a strong link between early childhood sexual abuse and subsequent teenage pregnancy in industrialized countries. 75][75][76] they have also reported that knowledge of their pregnancy has often intensified violent and controlling behaviors on part of their boyfriends. A washington state study found 70% of teenage mothers had been beaten by their boyfriends, 51% had experienced attempts of birth control sabotage within the last year, and 21% experienced school or work a study of 379 pregnant or parenting teens and 95 teenage girls without children, 62% of girls aged 11–15 and 56% of girls aged 16–19 reported experiencing domestic violence at the hands of their partners. Frontispiece illustration from street arabs and gutter snipes by george carter needham, boston, e pregnancy has been defined predominantly within the research field and among social agencies as a social problem. 59] economically poor countries such as niger and bangladesh have far more teenage mothers compared with economically rich countries such as switzerland and japan. 79] for example, in italy, the teenage birth rate in the well-off central regions is only 3. Is little evidence to support the common belief that teenage mothers become pregnant to get benefits, welfare, and council housing. Exposed to abuse, domestic violence, and family strife in childhood are more likely to become pregnant as teenagers, and the risk of becoming pregnant as a teenager increases with the number of adverse childhood experiences. 82] according to a 2004 study, one-third of teenage pregnancies could be prevented by eliminating exposure to abuse, violence, and family strife. Have also found that girls whose fathers left the family early in their lives had the highest rates of early sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy. Even when the researchers took into account other factors that could have contributed to early sexual activity and pregnancy, such as behavioral problems and life adversity, early father-absent girls were still about five times more likely in the united states and three times more likely in new zealand to become pregnant as adolescents than were father-present girls.

87] a girl is also more likely to become a teenage parent if her mother or older sister gave birth in her teens. 34][52] a majority of respondents in a 1988 joint center for political and economic studies survey attributed the occurrence of adolescent pregnancy to a breakdown of communication between parents and child and also to inadequate parental supervision. Dutch approach to preventing teenage pregnancy has often been seen as a model by other countries. 94] it has been found to be ineffective in decreasing hiv risk in the developed world,[95] and does not decrease rates of unplanned pregnancy when compared to comprehensive sex education. 97] studies indicate that, internationally, success in reducing teen pregnancy rates is directly correlated with the kind of access that title x provides: “what appears crucial to success is that adolescents know where they can go to obtain information and services, can get there easily and are assured of receiving confidential, nonjudgmental care, and that these services and contraceptive supplies are free or cost very little. Department of health and human services approved $155 million in new funding for comprehensive sex education programs designed to prevent teenage pregnancy. These grants will support the replication of teen pregnancy prevention programs that have been shown to be effective through rigorous research as well as the testing of new, innovative approaches to combating teen pregnancy. 98] of the total of $150 million, $55 million is funded by affordable care act through the personal responsibility education program, which requires states receiving funding to incorporate lessons about both abstinence and the developing world, programs of reproductive health aimed at teenagers are often small scale and not centrally coordinated, although some countries such as sri lanka have a systematic policy framework for teaching about sex within schools. Team of researchers and educators in california have published a list of "best practices" in the prevention of teen pregnancy, which includes, in addition to the previously mentioned concepts, working to "instill a belief in a successful future", male involvement in the prevention process, and designing interventions that are culturally relevant. Reporting teenage pregnancy rates, the number of pregnancies per 1,000 females aged 15 to 19 when the pregnancy ends is generally used. 103] among oecd developed countries, the united states, united kingdom and new zealand have the highest level of teenage pregnancy, while japan and south korea have the lowest in 2001. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of mortality among women aged 15–19 in such areas. Highest rate of teenage pregnancy in the world is in sub-saharan africa, where women tend to marry at an early age. The indian subcontinent, early marriage sometimes results in adolescent pregnancy, particularly in rural regions where the rate is much higher than it is in urbanized areas. Latest data suggests that teen pregnancy in india is high with 62 pregnant teens out of every 1,000 women. 105] india is fast approaching to be the most populous country in the world, and increasing teenage pregnancy, an important factor for the population rise, is likely to aggravate the problem. However, in the industrialized asian nations such as south korea and singapore, teenage birth rates remain among the lowest in the world. Overall trend in europe since 1970 has been a decreasing total fertility rate, an increase in the age at which women experience their first birth, and a decrease in the number of births among teenagers. 110] many of the teen births occur in roma populations, who have an occurrence of teenage pregnancies well above the local average. Article: teenage pregnancy and sexual health in the united teen pregnancy rate in england and wales was 23. Historically, the uk has had one of the highest teenage pregnancy and abortion rates in western are no comparable rates for conceptions across europe, but the under-18 birth rate suggests england is closing the gap. A spokeswoman for the british pregnancy advisory service said: "contrary to popular perception, this data shows that the teenage pregnancy rate is falling dramatically in england and wales. While the uk has historically had a high teenage conception rate, it is now at its lowest level on record and not significantly out of step with other european countries. We have seen a huge decline in the number of babies born to teenage mothers over the last decade, in part due to the improvements we've seen in contraception advice and services for younger women, with straightforward access to abortion services when their chosen method lets them down. Article: teenage pregnancy in the united teenage birth rate in the united states is the highest in the developed world, and the teenage abortion rate is also high. Teenage pregnancy rate was at a high in the 1950s and has decreased since then, although there has been an increase in births out of wedlock. 115] the teenage pregnancy rate decreased significantly in the 1990s; this decline manifested across all racial groups, although teenagers of african-american and hispanic descent retain a higher rate, in comparison to that of european-americans and asian-americans. Latest data from the united states shows that the states with the highest teenage birthrate are mississippi, new mexico and arkansas while the states with the lowest teenage birthrate are new hampshire, massachusetts and vermont.

Canadian teenage birth trended towards a steady decline for both younger (15–17) and older (18–19) teens in the period between 1992 and 2002;[119] however, teen pregnancy has been on the rise since 2013. The conception may occur within wedlock, or the pregnancy itself may precipitate the marriage (the so-called shotgun wedding). And the ireland, the majority of teenage mothers are not married to the father of their children. 47][121] in the uk, half of all teenagers with children are lone parents, 40% are cohabitating as a couple and 10% are married. 122] teenage parents are frequently in a romantic relationship at the time of birth, but many adolescent fathers do not stay with the mother and this often disrupts their relationship with the child. Studies by the population reference bureau and the national center for health statistics found that about two-thirds of births to teenage girls in the united states are fathered by adult men aged over 20. Pregnancy was normal in previous centuries, and common in developed countries in the 20th century. Among norwegian women born in the early 1950s, nearly a quarter became teenage mothers by the early 1970s. Among those born in norway in the late 1970s, less than 10% became teenage mothers, and rates have fallen since then. Bobby darin was born to a teenage mother in 1936, whom he believed to be his sister for most of his life, until she revealed to him as being his actual mother in his adult life. Palin, 18, the teenage daughter of john mccain's 2008 vice presidential candidate former[163] alaskan governor sarah palin, gave birth on december 27, 2008 to a son named tripp. Politicians condemn pregnancy in unmarried teenagers as a drain on taxpayers, if the mothers and children receive welfare payments from the government. Teenage pregnancies, births and abortions: national and state trends and trends by race and ethnicity" (pdf). Please note that in these tables, "age" refers to the woman’s age when the pregnancy ended. Consequently, actual numbers of pregnancies that occurred among teenagers are higher than those reported here, because most of the women who conceived at age 19 had their births or abortions after they turned 20 and, thus, were not counted as teenagers. Not just another single issue: teen pregnancy prevention's link to other critical social issues" (pdf). A b beginning too soon: adolescent sexual behavior, pregnancy and parenthood, us department of health and human services. A b teenage mothers : decisions and outcomes – provides a unique review of how teenage mothers think policy studies institute, university of westminster, 30 oct 1998. Impact of adolescent childbearing on families and younger sibling: effects that increase younger siblings' risk for early pregnancy". I just let him have his way" partner violence in the lives of low-income, teenage mothers". Teenage conceptions by small area deprivation in england and wales 2001-2" (spring 2007)health statistics quarterly volume 33. In 2004 despite drop in teen birth, pregnancy rates, report says archived 2011-05-12 at the wayback machine.. 2004) teenage pregnancy risk rises with childhood exposure to family strife archived 2007-11-04 at the wayback machine. Does father absence place daughters at special risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy? Quigley, ann (2003) father's absence increases daughter's risk of teen pregnancy health behavior news service, may 27, 2003. Kb) a joint project of the national campaign to prevent teen pregnancy and ucan (uhlich children’s advantage network) 16 feb 2006. Why teen pregnancy is on the rise again in canada (and spiking in these provinces)". Welfare queens" and "teen moms": how the social construction of fertile women impacts unintended pregnancy prevention policy in the united states".

Isbn y resources ces in your ces in other pregnancy at curlie (based on dmoz). Pregnancies and obstetric pregnancy, a special issue from the journal of applied research on children (2011). Teenage pregnancyadolescenceadolescent sexualityyouthmotherhoodpediatric gynecologyhidden categories: webarchive template wayback linkswikipedia articles needing clarification from may 2011cs1 maint: bot: original-url status unknowncs1 maint: multiple names: authors listall articles with dead external linksarticles with dead external links from december 2017articles with permanently dead external linksinfobox medical conditionall articles with unsourced statementsarticles with unsourced statements from november 2015articles with unsourced statements from august 2014pages using div col without cols and colwidth parametersarticles with dmoz logged intalkcontributionscreate accountlog pagecontentsfeatured contentcurrent eventsrandom articledonate to wikipediawikipedia out wikipediacommunity portalrecent changescontact links hererelated changesupload filespecial pagespermanent linkpage informationwikidata itemcite this a bookdownload as pdfprintable version.