Need and importance of action research
Wikipedia, the free to: navigation, the british charity formerly named action research, see action medical research. Research is either research initiated to solve an immediate problem or a reflective process of progressive problem solving led by individuals working with others in teams or as part of a "community of practice" to improve the way they address issues and solve problems. 6) writes that an action research strategy's purpose is to solve a particular problem and to produce guidelines for best research involves actively participating in a change situation, often via an existing organization, whilst simultaneously conducting research. Action research can also be undertaken by larger organizations or institutions, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices and knowledge of the environments within which they practice. As designers and stakeholders, researchers work with others to propose a new course of action to help their community improve its work lewin, then a professor at mit, first coined the term "action research" in 1944. In his 1946 paper "action research and minority problems" he described action research as "a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action" that uses "a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action and fact-finding about the result of the action". 5 scholarly research is an interactive inquiry process that balances problem solving actions implemented in a collaborative context with data-driven collaborative analysis or research to understand underlying causes enabling future predictions about personal and organizational change (reason & bradbury, 2001). 2] after six decades of action research development, many methods have evolved that adjust the balance to focus more on the actions taken or more on the research that results from the reflective understanding of the actions. This tension exists who are more driven either by the researcher's agenda or by participants;. To 2nd-, to 3rd-person research, that is, my research on my own action, aimed primarily at personal change; our research on our group (family/team), aimed primarily at improving the group; and 'scholarly' research aimed primarily at theoretical generalization or large-scale change. Research challenges traditional social science by moving beyond reflective knowledge created by outside experts sampling variables, to an active moment-to-moment theorizing, data collecting and inquiry occurring in the midst of emergent structure. From this starting point, to question the validity of social knowledge is to question, not how to develop a reflective science about action, but how to develop genuinely well-informed action – how to conduct an action science". 4] in this sense, performing action research is the same as performing an experiment, thus it is an empirical argyris' action science. Argyris' action science begins with the study of how human beings design their actions in difficult situations. Humans design their actions to achieve intended consequences and are governed by a set of environment variables.
Importance of action research
How those governing variables are treated in designing actions are the key differences between single-loop and double-loop learning. When actions are designed to achieve the intended consequences and to suppress conflict about the governing variables, a single-loop learning cycle usually the other hand, when actions are taken not only to achieve the intended consequences, but also to openly inquire about conflict and to possibly transform the governing variables, both single- and double-loop learning cycles usually ensue. This is different from experimental research in which environmental variables are controlled and researchers try to find out cause and effect in an isolated heron and peter reason's cooperative inquiry. It emphasizes the full involvement in research decisions of all active participants as ative inquiry creates a research cycle among 4 different types of knowledge: propositional (as in contemporary science), practical (the knowledge that comes with actually doing what you propose), experiential (the real-time feedback we get about our interaction with the larger world) and presentational (the artistic rehearsal process through which we craft new practices). At every cycle, the research process includes these four stages, with deepening experience and knowledge of the initial proposition, or of new freire's participatory action research (par). Article: participatory action ipatory action research has emerged in recent years as a significant methodology for intervention, development and change within groups and communities. Citation needed][dubious – discuss] par builds on the critical pedagogy put forward by paulo freire as a response to the traditional formal models of education where the "teacher" stands at the front and "imparts" information to the "students" who are passive recipients. This was further developed in "adult education" models throughout latin o fals-borda (1925–2008), colombian sociologist and political activist, was one of the principal promoters of participatory action research (iap in spanish) in latin america. He published a "double history of the coast", book that compares the official "history" and the non-official "story" of the north coast of m barry's living educational theory approach to action research. Article: living educational m barry (atkins and wallace 2012) defined an approach to action research which focuses on creating ontological weight. 5] he adapted the idea of ontological weight to action research from existential christian philosopher gabriel marcel (1963). Barry was influenced by jean mcniff's and jack whitehead's (2008) phraseology of living theory action research but was diametrically opposed to the validation process advocated by whitehead which demanded video "evidence" of "energy flowing values" and his atheistic ontological position which influenced his conception of values in action research. Explained that living educational theory (let) "[it is] a critical and transformational approach to action research. It confronts the researcher to challenge the status quo of their educational practice and to answer the question, 'how can i improve that i'm doing? Researchers who use this approach must be willing to recognize and assume responsibility for being a 'living contradictions' in their professional practice – thinking one way and acting in another.
The mission of the let action researcher is to overcome workplace norms and self-behavior which contradict the researcher's values and beliefs. The vision of the let researcher is to make an original contribution to knowledge through generating an educational theory proven to improve the learning of people within a social learning space. The standard of judgment for theory validity is evidence of workplace reform, transformational growth of the researcher, and improved learning by the people researcher claimed to have influenced... French and cecil bell define organization development (od) at one point as "organization improvement through action research". 7] if one idea can be said to summarize od's underlying philosophy, it would be action research as it was conceptualized by kurt lewin and later elaborated and expanded on by other behavioral scientists. Concerned with social change and, more particularly, with effective, permanent social change, lewin believed that the motivation to change was strongly related to action: if people are active in decisions affecting them, they are more likely to adopt new ways. Rational social management", he said, "proceeds in a spiral of steps, each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action and fact-finding about the result of action". Faced with a dilemma or disconfirmation, the individual or group becomes aware of a need to ng: the situation is diagnosed and new models of behavior are explored and zing: application of new behavior is evaluated, and if reinforcing, 1: systems model of action-research 's description of the process of change involves three steps:. Action research is depicted as a cyclical process of cycle begins with a series of planning actions initiated by the client and the change agent working together. The principal elements of this stage include a preliminary diagnosis, data gathering, feedback of results, and joint action planning. In the language of systems theory, this is the input phase, in which the client system becomes aware of problems as yet unidentified, realizes it may need outside help to effect changes, and shares with the consultant the process of problem second stage of action research is the action, or transformation, phase. This stage includes actions relating to learning processes (perhaps in the form of role analysis) and to planning and executing behavioral changes in the client organization. Included in this stage is action-planning activity carried out jointly by the consultant and members of the client system. Following the workshop or learning sessions, these action steps are carried out on the job as part of the transformation stage. This stage includes actual changes in behavior (if any) resulting from corrective action steps taken following the second stage.
The action-research model shown in figure 1 closely follows lewin's repetitive cycle of planning, action, and measuring results. 8] the action stage is a period of changing, that is, trying out new forms of behavior in an effort to understand and cope with the system's problems. Why educational research has been so uneducational: the case for a new model of social science based on collaborative inquiry". How can i improve my life-affirming, need-fulfilling, and performance enhancing capacity to understand and model the meaning of educational quality? Isbn n & torbert, transforming social inquiry, transforming social action: new paradigms for crossing the theory/practice divide in universities and communities. The role of citizen participation and action research principles in main street revitalization: an analysis of a local planning project," action research 6(1): er, e. This is my truth, tell me yours: some aspects of action research quality in the light of truth theories. Undertaking action research: negotiating the road ahead, social research update, issue 34, philosophical sources of action research. Action research and action learning ional action ational journal for transformative l of applied behavioral l of organizational change ic practice and action article's use of external links may not follow wikipedia's policies or guidelines. Has learning resources about action ote has quotations related to: action for collaborative action oks: contemporary educational psychology/chapter 13: the reflective ont lincoln center for action ries: social science methodologyhidden categories: articles needing additional references from january 2014all articles needing additional referencesall articles with unsourced statementsarticles with unsourced statements from june 2013all accuracy disputesarticles with disputed statements from june 2013wikipedia external links cleanup from march 2012wikipedia spam cleanup from march logged intalkcontributionscreate accountlog pagecontentsfeatured contentcurrent eventsrandom articledonate to wikipediawikipedia out wikipediacommunity portalrecent changescontact links hererelated changesupload filespecial pagespermanent linkpage informationwikidata itemcite this a bookdownload as pdfprintable dia commonswikiquote. A non-profit wikipedia, the free to: navigation, the british charity formerly named action research, see action medical research. Succinct definition of action research appears in the workshop materials we use at the institute for the study of inquiry in education. That definition states that action research is a disciplined process of inquiry conducted by and for those taking the action. The primary reason for engaging in action research is to assist the “actor” in improving and/or refining his or her tioners who engage in action research inevitably find it to be an empowering experience. Relevance is guaranteed because the focus of each research project is determined by the researchers, who are also the primary consumers of the s even more important is the fact that action research helps educators be more effective at what they care most about—their teaching and the development of their students.
When teachers have convincing evidence that their work has made a real difference in their students' lives, the countless hours and endless efforts of teaching seem action research ional action research can be engaged in by a single teacher, by a group of colleagues who share an interest in a common problem, or by the entire faculty of a school. These seven steps, which become an endless cycle for the inquiring teacher, are the following:Identifying research informed 1—selecting a action research process begins with serious reflection directed toward identifying a topic or topics worthy of a busy teacher's time. Selecting a focus begins with the teacher researcher or the team of action researchers asking: what element(s) of our practice or what aspect of student learning do we wish to investigate? 2—clarifying second step involves identifying the values, beliefs, and theoretical perspectives the researchers hold relating to their focus. For example, if teachers are concerned about increasing responsible classroom behavior, it will be helpful for them to begin by clarifying which approach—using punishments and rewards, allowing students to experience the natural consequences of their behaviors, or some other strategy—they feel will work best in helping students acquire responsible classroom behavior 3—identifying research a focus area has been selected and the researcher's perspectives and beliefs about that focus have been clarified, the next step is to generate a set of personally meaningful research questions to guide the 4—collecting sional educators always want their instructional decisions to be based on the best possible data. Action researchers can accomplish this by making sure that the data used to justify their actions are valid (meaning the information represents what the researchers say it does) and reliable (meaning the researchers are confident about the accuracy of their data). Lastly, before data are used to make teaching decisions, teachers must be confident that the lessons drawn from the data align with any unique characteristics of their classroom or ensure reasonable validity and reliability, action researchers should avoid relying on any single source of data. Most teacher researchers use a process called triangulation to enhance the validity and reliability of their findings. Observing a phenomenon through multiple “windows” can help a single researcher compare and contrast what is being seen through a variety of planning instruction, teachers want the techniques they choose to be appropriate for the unique qualities of their students. All teachers have had the experience of implementing a “research-proven” strategy only to have it fail with their students. The ability of the action research process to satisfy an educator's need for “fit” may be its most powerful attribute. Because the data being collected come from the very students and teachers who are engaged with the treatment, the relevance of the findings is the harried and overworked teacher, “data collection” can appear to be the most intimidating aspect of the entire seven-step action research process. The key to managing triangulated data collection is, first, to be effective and efficient in collecting the material that is already swirling around the classroom, and, second, to identify other sources of data that might be effectively surfaced with tests, classroom discussions, or 5—analyzing gh data analysis often brings to mind the use of complex statistical calculations, this is rarely the case for the action researcher. A number of relatively user-friendly procedures can help a practitioner identify the trends and patterns in action research data. During this portion of the seven-step process, teacher researchers will methodically sort, sift, rank, and examine their data to answer two generic questions:What is the story told by these data?
Answering these two questions, the teacher researcher can acquire a better understanding of the phenomenon under investigation and as a result can end up producing grounded theory regarding what might be done to improve the 6—reporting is often said that teaching is a lonely endeavor. The loneliness of teaching is unfortunate not only because of its inefficiency, but also because when dealing with complex problems the wisdom of several minds is inevitably better than sad history of teacher isolation may explain why the very act of reporting on their action research has proven so powerful for both the researchers and their colleagues. The reporting of action research most often occurs in informal settings that are far less intimidating than the venues where scholarly research has traditionally been shared. Faculty meetings, brown bag lunch seminars, and teacher conferences are among the most common venues for sharing action research with peers. However, each year more and more teacher researchers are writing up their work for publication or to help fulfill requirements in graduate programs. Regardless of which venue or technique educators select for reporting on research, the simple knowledge that they are making a contribution to a collective knowledge base regarding teaching and learning frequently proves to be among the most rewarding aspects of this 7—taking informed informed action, or “action planning,” the last step in the action research process, is very familiar to most teachers. When teachers write lesson plans or develop academic programs, they are engaged in the action planning process. What makes action planning particularly satisfying for the teacher researcher is that with each piece of data uncovered (about teaching or student learning) the educator will feel greater confidence in the wisdom of the next steps. Although all teaching can be classified as trial and error, action researchers find that the research process liberates them from continuously repeating their past mistakes. More important, with each refinement of practice, action researchers gain valid and reliable data on their developing purposes for action stated earlier, action research can be engaged in by an individual teacher, a collaborative group of colleagues sharing a common concern, or an entire school faculty. These three different approaches to organizing for research serve three compatible, yet distinct, purposes:Building the reflective progress on schoolwide ng professional ng the reflective individual teachers make a personal commitment to systematically collect data on their work, they are embarking on a process that will foster continuous growth and development. In this way, the individual teachers conducting action research are making continuous progress in developing their strengths as reflective progress on schoolwide singly, schools are focusing on strengthening themselves and their programs through the development of common focuses and a strong sense of esprit de corps. As a result, when a faculty chooses to focus on one issue and all the teachers elect to enthusiastically participate in action research on that issue, significant progress on the schoolwide priorities cannot help but ng professional an entire faculty will share a commitment to student development, yet the group finds itself unable to adopt a single common focus for action research. However, like the doctors at the medical center, the teachers in a “quality” school may well differ on which specific aspects of the shared vision they are most motivated to pursue at any point in s whose faculties cannot agree on a single research focus can still use action research as a tool to help transform themselves into a learning organization. It is common practice in a quality medical center for physicians to engage in independent, even idiosyncratic, research agendas.
However, it is also common for medical researchers to share the findings obtained from their research with colleagues (even those engaged in other specialties). In these schools, multiple action research inquiries occur simultaneously, and no one is held captive to another's priority, yet everyone knows that all the work ultimately will be shared and will consequently contribute to organizational action research now? Ever there were a time and a strategy that were right for each other, the time is now and the strategy is action research! This is true for a host of reasons, with none more important than the need to accomplish the following:Professionalize e the motivation and efficacy of a weary the needs of an increasingly diverse student e success with “standards-based” sionalizing ng in north america has evolved in a manner that makes it more like blue-collar work than a professional undertaking. With the exploding knowledge base on teaching and learning and the heightened demands on teachers to help all children achieve mastery of meaningful objectives, the inadequacy of the blue-collar model for teaching is becoming much the teachers in a school begin conducting action research, their workplace begins to take on more of the flavor of the workplaces of other professionals. For both teachers and athletes, the continuous presence of compelling data that their hard work is paying off becomes, in itself, a vitally energizing g the needs of a diverse student a homogeneous society in which all students come to school looking alike, it might be wise to seek the one right answer to questions of pedagogy. Nevertheless, great personal satisfaction comes from playing a role in creating successful solutions to continually changing puzzles. If we accept the truth of that statement, then we need to acknowledge the fact that achieving the goal of universal student mastery will not be easy. For this reason, it is imperative that these 21st century pioneers, our classroom teachers, conduct the research on “standards attainment” the time is right for action research. This process of action research more scientific in nature, proposing theories that can be back up by data. There have been a lot s to the way things are taught in school as a result of the r advantage of implementing action in the fact it addresses the both the quality of students the professional growth of teachers. By actually reflecting a teacher is doing in the classroom, it becomes easier to see ms are there, and there is usually some indication of how to go leads into the third advantage of action research:It leads directly to actions that change the environment. Once r begins reflecting on the classroom situation, a thoughtful usually not waste much time in implementing actions based on the ch he or she conducted. As mentioned earlier, there have been a lot of the way subjects are taught in schools because of action example that illustrates how action research has changed a be in the physical education program. It has changed through the work of action research, ors realized that students were not getting enough just by .
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They realized there was a need to implement social, affective,And cognitive domains into the physical education y, action research has the advantage of developing. Hence, action research can be thought of as many of the innovations in pedagogy we now have at our disposal t and future research is a very beneficial tool, but a lot of time to conduct to be done well. Action research ongoing process of reflection and action to produce the most ng environment possible. It is also to note that not all be solved overnight, so results are not as immediate as one might the fact remains that action research is an essential process for evolve to meet the needs of the students of today and tomorrow.