Quantitative research design methods

Of southern zing your social sciences research zing your social sciences research paper: quantitative purpose of this guide is to provide advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social of research flaws to ndent and dependent ry of research terms. Choosing a research ing a topic ning a topic ing the timeliness of a topic idea. An oral g with g someone else's to manage group of structured group project survival g a book le book review ing collected g a field informed g a policy g a research tative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques. Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular , earl r. London: sage publications, teristics of quantitative goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured before and after a treatment]. A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables; an experimental study establishes tative research deals in numbers, logic, and an objective stance. Quantitative research focuses on numeric and unchanging data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning [i. The generation of a variety of ideas about a research problem in a spontaneous, free-flowing manner]. Main characteristics are:The data is usually gathered using structured research results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high cher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is are in the form of numbers and statistics, often arranged in tables, charts, figures, or other non-textual t can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal cher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect numerical overarching aim of a quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is to keep in mind when reporting the results of a study using quantitative methods:Explain the data collected and their statistical treatment as well as all relevant results in relation to the research problem you are investigating. Inferring causality, particularly in nonrandomized designs or without further tables to provide exact values; use figures to convey global effects. Government agency], you still must report on the methods that were used to gather the data and describe any missing data that exists and, if there is any, provide a clear explanation why the missing data does not undermine the validity of your final , earl r. Los angeles, ca: sage, research design for quantitative designing a quantitative research study, you must decide whether it will be descriptive or experimental because this will dictate how you gather, analyze, and interpret the results. An experimental design includes subjects measured before and after a particular treatment, the sample population may be very small and purposefully chosen, and it is intended to establish causality between introduction to a quantitative study is usually written in the present tense and from the third person point of view.

Research design for quantitative research

It covers the following information:Identifies the research problem -- as with any academic study, you must state clearly and concisely the research problem being s the literature -- review scholarship on the topic, synthesizing key themes and, if necessary, noting studies that have used similar methods of inquiry and analysis. If necessary, define unfamiliar or complex terms, concepts, or ideas and provide the appropriate background information to place the research problem in proper context [e. Methods section of a quantitative study should describe how each objective of your study will be achieved. Be sure to provide enough detail to enable the reader can make an informed assessment of the methods being used to obtain results associated with the research problem. The methods section should be presented in the past population and sampling -- where did the data come from; how robust is it; note where gaps exist or what was excluded. Collection – describe the tools and methods used to collect information and identify the variables being measured; describe the methods used to obtain the data; and, note if the data was pre-existing [i. Note that no data set is perfect--describe any limitations in methods of gathering analysis -- describe the procedures for processing and analyzing the data. If appropriate, describe the specific instruments of analysis used to study each research objective, including mathematical techniques and the type of computer software used to manipulate the finding of your study should be written objectively and in a succinct and precise format. In quantitative studies, it is common to use graphs, tables, charts, and other non-textual elements to help the reader understand the data. The discussion should be presented in the present retation of results -- reiterate the research problem being investigated and compare and contrast the findings with the research questions underlying the study. Describe any limitations or unavoidable bias in your study and, if necessary, note why these limitations did not inhibit effective interpretation of the your study by to summarizing the topic and provide a final comment and assessment of the y of findings – synthesize the answers to your research questions. Do not report any statistical data here; just provide a narrative summary of the key findings and describe what was learned that you did not know before conducting the endations – if appropriate to the aim of the assignment, tie key findings with policy recommendations or actions to be taken in research – note the need for future research linked to your study’s limitations or to any remaining gaps in the literature that were not addressed in your , thomas r. Doing quantitative research in the social sciences: an integrated approach to research design, measurement and statistics. Kennesaw state ths of using quantitative tative researchers try to recognize and isolate specific variables contained within the study framework, seek correlation, relationships and causality, and attempt to control the environment in which the data is collected to avoid the risk of variables, other than the one being studied, accounting for the relationships the specific strengths of using quantitative methods to study social science research problems:Allows for a broader study, involving a greater number of subjects, and enhancing the generalization of the results;.

Generally, quantitative methods are designed to provide summaries of data that support generalizations about the phenomenon under study. In order to accomplish this, quantitative research usually involves few variables and many cases, and employs prescribed procedures to ensure validity and reliability;. Well establshed standards means that the research can be replicated, and then analyzed and compared with similar studies;. Los angeles, ca: sage, tions of using quantiative tative methods presume to have an objective approach to studying research problems, where data is controlled and measured, to address the accumulation of facts, and to determine the causes of behavior. As a consequence, the results of quantitative research may be statistically significant but are often humanly specific limitations associated with using quantitative methods to study research problems in the social sciences include:Quantitative data is more efficient and able to test hypotheses, but may miss contextual detail;. Development of standard questions by researchers can lead to "structural bias" and false representation, where the data actually reflects the view of the researcher instead of the participating subject;. Research is often carried out in an unnatural, artificial environment so that a level of control can be applied to the exercise. University of southern elements of a research are the main types of quantitative approaches to research? Is easier to understand the different types of quantitative research designs if you consider how the researcher designs for control of the variables in the the researcher views quantitative design as a continuum, one end of the range represents a design where the variables are not controlled at all and only observed. At the other end of the spectrum, however, are designs which include a very close control of variables, and relationships amongst those variables are clearly established. In the middle, with experiment design moving from one type to the other, is a range which blends those two extremes are four main types of quantitative research:  descriptive, correlational, causal-comparative/quasi-experimental, and experimental of quantitative ptive research seeks to describe the current status of an identified variable. The researcher does not usually begin with an hypothesis, but is likely to develop one after collecting data. Systematic collection of information requires careful selection of the units studied and careful measurement of each es of descriptive research:A description of how second-grade students spend their time during summer vacation. Description of the extent to which elementary teachers use math ational research attempts to determine the extent of a relationship between two or more variables using statistical data.

In this type of design, relationships between and among a number of facts are sought and interpreted. This type of research will recognize trends and patterns in data, but it does not go so far in its analysis to prove causes for these observed patterns. Sometimes correlational research is considered a type of descriptive research, and not as its own type of research, as no variables are manipulated in the es of correlational research:The relationship between intelligence and relationship between diet and relationship between an aptitude test and success in an algebra relationship between act scores and the freshman relationships between the types of activities used in math classrooms and student covariance of smoking and lung -comparative/quasi-experimental research attempts to establish cause-effect relationships among the variables. These types of design are very similar to true experiments, but with some key differences. The researcher does not randomly assign groups and must use ones that are naturally formed or pre-existing groups. A causal-comparative designed study, described in a new york times article, "the case for $320,00 kindergarten teachers,"  illustrates how causation must be thoroughly assessed before firm relationships amongst variables can be es of correlational research:The effect of preschool attendance on social maturity at the end of the first effect of taking multivitamins on a students’ school effect of gender on algebra effect of part-time employment on the achievement of high school effect of magnet school participation on student effect of age on lung mental research, often called true experimentation, uses the scientific method to establish the cause-effect relationship among a group of variables that make up a study. Subjects are randomly assigned to experimental treatments rather than identified in naturally occurring es of experimental research:The effect of a new treatment plan on breast effect of positive reinforcement on attitude toward effect of teaching with a cooperative group strategy or a traditional lecture approach on students’ effect of a systematic preparation and support system on children who were scheduled for surgery on the amount of psychological upset and cooperation. It uses deductive reasoning, where the researcher forms an hypothesis, collects data in an investigation of the problem, and then uses the data from the investigation, after analysis is made and conclusions are shared, to prove the hypotheses not false or false. The basic procedure of a quantitative design is:Make your observations about something that is unknown, unexplained, or new. Then complete the chart and answer the reflection questions in the digital to design elements of a research are the main types of quantitative approaches to research? Then complete the chart and answer the reflection questions in the digital to design searchmethods experiments design statistics reasoning philosophy ethics history academicpsychology biology physics medicine anthropology write paperwriting outline research question parts of a paper formatting academic journals tips for kidshow to conduct experiments experiments with food science experiments historic experiments self-helpself-esteem worry social anxiety arachnophobia anxiety sitequiz about faq terms privacy policy contact sitemap search codeloginsign tative research explorable? Take it with you wherever you research council of ibe to our rss blakstad on tative research shuttleworth 531. This page on your website:Quantitative research design is the standard experimental method of most scientific article is a part of the guide:Select from one of the other courses available:Experimental ty and ical tion and psychology e projects for ophy of sance & tics beginners tical bution in er 30 more articles on this 't miss these related articles:2quantitative and qualitative research. Experiments are sometimes referred to as true science, and use traditional mathematical and statistical means to measure results are most commonly used by physical scientists, although social sciences, education and economics have been known to use this type of research.

A sound quantitative design should only manipulate one variable at a time, or statistical analysis becomes cumbersome and open to y, the research should be constructed in a manner that allows others to repeat the experiment and obtain similar to perform the quantitative research design.. Quantitative research design is an excellent way of finalizing results and proving or disproving a hypothesis. Quantitative experiments also filter out external factors, if properly designed, and so the results gained can be seen as real and tative experiments are useful for testing the results gained by a series of qualitative experiments, leading to a final answer, and a narrowing down of possible directions for follow up research to antages quantitative experiments can be difficult and expensive and require a lot of time to perform. They must be carefully planned to ensure that there is complete randomization and correct designation of control tative studies usually require extensive statistical analysis, which can be difficult, due to most scientists not being statisticians. The field of statistical study is a whole scientific discipline and can be difficult for non-mathematiciansin addition, the requirements for the successful statistical confirmation of results are very stringent, with very few experiments comprehensively proving a hypothesis; there is usually some ambiguity, which requires retesting and refinement to the design. This means another investment of time and resources must be committed to fine-tune the tative research design also tends to generate only proved or unproven results, with there being very little room for grey areas and uncertainty. Are free to copy, share and adapt any text in the article, as long as you give appropriate credit and provide a link/reference to this ative research design - exploring a subject in depthquantitative and qualitative research - objective or subjective? Research design - observing a phenomenonresearch designs - how to construct an experiment or studycase study research design - how to conduct a case tative wikipedia, the free to: navigation, article has multiple issues. Natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques. 1] the objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories and hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central to quantitative research because it provides the fundamental connection between empirical observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Quantitative data is any data that is in numerical form such as statistics, percentages, etc. 1] the researcher analyses the data with the help of statistics and hopes the numbers will yield an unbiased result that can be generalized to some larger population. Qualitative research, on the other hand, inquires deeply into specific experiences, with the intention of describing and exploring meaning through text, narrative, or visual-based data, by developing themes exclusive to that set of participants.

Social sciences, quantitative research is widely used in psychology, economics, demography, sociology, marketing, community health, health & human development, gender and political science, and less frequently in anthropology and history. Research in mathematical sciences such as physics is also 'quantitative' by definition, though this use of the term differs in context. In the social sciences, the term relates to empirical methods, originating in both philosophical positivism and the history of statistics, which contrast with qualitative research ative research produces information only on the particular cases studied, and any more general conclusions are only hypotheses. Comprehensive analysis of 1274 articles published in the top two american sociology journals between 1935 and 2005 found that roughly two thirds of these articles used quantitative method. Relationship with qualitative tative research is generally made using scientific methods, which can include:The generation of models, theories and development of instruments and methods for mental control and manipulation of tion of empirical ng and analysis of tative research is often contrasted with qualitative research, which is the examination, analysis and interpretation of observations for the purpose of discovering underlying meanings and patterns of relationships, including classifications of types of phenomena and entities, in a manner that does not involve mathematical models. 4] approaches to quantitative psychology were first modeled on quantitative approaches in the physical sciences by gustav fechner in his work on psychophysics, which built on the work of ernst heinrich weber. Although a distinction is commonly drawn between qualitative and quantitative aspects of scientific investigation, it has been argued that the two go hand in hand. 5] qualitative research is often used to gain a general sense of phenomena and to form theories that can be tested using further quantitative research. For instance, in the social sciences qualitative research methods are often used to gain better understanding of such things as intentionality (from the speech response of the researchee) and meaning (why did this person/group say something and what did it mean to them? Quantitative investigation of the world has existed since people first began to record events or objects that had been counted, the modern idea of quantitative processes have their roots in auguste comte's positivist framework. Positivist scholars like comte believed only scientific methods rather than previous spiritual explanations for human behavior could tative methods are an integral component of the five angles of analysis fostered by the data percolation methodology,[7] which also includes qualitative methods, reviews of the literature (including scholarly), interviews with experts and computer simulation, and which forms an extension of data tative methods have limitations. Is the most widely used branch of mathematics in quantitative research outside of the physical sciences, and also finds applications within the physical sciences, such as in statistical mechanics. Quantitative research using statistical methods starts with the collection of data, based on the hypothesis or theory. In the field of health, for example, researchers might measure and study the relationship between dietary intake and measurable physiological effects such as weight loss, controlling for other key variables such as exercise.

Quantitatively based opinion surveys are widely used in the media, with statistics such as the proportion of respondents in favor of a position commonly reported. In the field of climate science, researchers compile and compare statistics such as temperature or atmospheric concentrations of carbon cal relationships and associations are also frequently studied by using some form of general linear model, non-linear model, or by using factor analysis. A fundamental principle in quantitative research is that correlation does not imply causation, although some such as clive granger suggest that a series of correlations can imply a degree of causality. Associations may be examined between any combination of continuous and categorical variables using methods of regarding the role of measurement in quantitative research are somewhat divergent. However, it has been argued that measurement often plays a more important role in quantitative research. 9] for example, kuhn argued that within quantitative research, the results that are shown can prove to be strange. This is because accepting a theory based on results of quantitative data could prove to be a natural phenomenon. This field is central to much quantitative research that is undertaken within the social tative research may involve the use of proxies as stand-ins for other quantities that cannot be directly measured. Although scientists cannot directly measure the temperature of past years, tree-ring width and other climate proxies have been used to provide a semi-quantitative record of average temperature in the northern hemisphere back to 1000 a. Most physical and biological sciences, the use of either quantitative or qualitative methods is uncontroversial, and each is used when appropriate. The majority tendency throughout the history of social science, however, is to use eclectic approaches-by combining both methods. Qualitative methods might be used to understand the meaning of the conclusions produced by quantitative methods. Using quantitative methods, it is possible to give precise and testable expression to qualitative ideas. This combination of quantitative and qualitative data gathering is often referred to as mixed-methods research.

The numerical factors such as two tablets, percent of elements and the time of waiting make the situations and results finance, quantitative research into the stock markets is used to develop models to price complex trades, and develop algorithms to exploit investment hypotheses, as seen in quantitative hedge funds and trading strategy tative marketing tative fication (science). A choice of research strategy for identifying community-based action skill requirements in the process of delivering housing market renewal. Ries: quantitative researchhidden categories: cs1 maint: multiple names: authors listarticles needing additional references from may 2009all articles needing additional referencesarticles needing expert attention with no reason or talk parameterarticles needing expert attention from november 2009all articles needing expert attentionsociology articles needing expert logged intalkcontributionscreate accountlog pagecontentsfeatured contentcurrent eventsrandom articledonate to wikipediawikipedia out wikipediacommunity portalrecent changescontact links hererelated changesupload filespecial pagespermanent linkpage informationwikidata itemcite this a bookdownload as pdfprintable version.