Treatment of data for qualitative research

192subject categories: communication skills | scientific publishingmethods of data collection in qualitative research: interviews and focus groupsp. Chadwick4interviews and focus groups are the most common methods of data collection used in qualitative healthcare researchinterviews can be used to explore the views, experiences, beliefs and motivations of individual participantsfocus group use group dynamics to generate qualitative ctthis paper explores the most common methods of data collection used in qualitative research: interviews and focus groups. Examples of empirical studies that have used interviews or focus groups are also uctionhaving explored the nature and purpose of qualitative research in the previous paper, this paper explores methods of data collection used in qualitative research. There are a variety of methods of data collection in qualitative research, including observations, textual or visual analysis (eg from books or videos) and interviews (individual or group). However, the most common methods used, particularly in healthcare research, are interviews and focus groups. 3the purpose of this paper is to explore these two methods in more detail, in particular how they work in practice, the purpose of each, when their use is appropriate and what they can offer dental ative research interviewsthere are three fundamental types of research interviews: structured, semi-structured and unstructured. The flexibility of this approach, particularly compared to structured interviews, also allows for the discovery or elaboration of information that is important to participants but may not have previously been thought of as pertinent by the research example, in a recent dental public heath study,5 school children in cardiff, uk were interviewed about their food choices and preferences. A key finding that emerged from semi-structured interviews, which was not previously thought to be as highly influential as the data subsequently confirmed, was the significance of peer-pressure in influencing children's food choices and preferences. And, therefore, may not have emerged in the same way, if at all, if asked as a predetermined purpose of research interviewsthe purpose of the research interview is to explore the views, experiences, beliefs and/or motivations of individuals on specific matters (eg factors that influence their attendance at the dentist). Qualitative methods, such as interviews, are believed to provide a 'deeper' understanding of social phenomena than would be obtained from purely quantitative methods, such as questionnaires. They are also particularly appropriate for exploring sensitive topics, where participants may not want to talk about such issues in a group es of dental studies that have collected data using interviews are 'examining the psychosocial process involved in regular dental attendance'6 and 'exploring factors governing dentists' treatment philosophies'. The study by kay and blinkhorn7 provided a detailed insight into factors that influenced gdps' decision making in relation to treatment choices. The study found that dentists' clinical decisions about treatments were not necessarily related to pathology or treatment options, as was perhaps initially thought, but also involved discussions with patients, patients' values and dentists' feelings of self esteem and are many similarities between clinical encounters and research interviews, in that both employ similar interpersonal skills, such as questioning, conversing and listening. Primary purpose of clinical encounters is for the dentist to ask the patient questions in order to acquire sufficient information to inform decision making and treatment options. In contrast, the fundamental purpose of the research interview is to listen attentively to what respondents have to say, in order to acquire more knowledge about the study topic. Unlike the clinical encounter, it is not to intentionally offer any form of help or advice, which many researchers have neither the training nor the time for.

Research interviewing therefore requires a different approach and a different range of interviewwhen designing an interview schedule it is imperative to ask questions that are likely to yield as much information about the study phenomenon as possible and also be able to address the aims and objectives of the research. In a qualitative interview, good questions should be open-ended (ie, require more than a yes/no answer), neutral, sensitive and understandable. This can help put respondents at ease, build up confidence and rapport and often generates rich data that subsequently develops the interview in any research, it is often wise to first pilot the interview schedule on several respondents prior to data collection proper. This allows the research team to establish if the schedule is clear, understandable and capable of answering the research questions, and if, therefore, any changes to the interview schedule are length of interviews varies depending on the topic, researcher and participant. Whilst researchers may have less control over the home environment, familiarity may help the respondent to relax and result in a more productive interview. However, to ensure that the interview is as productive as possible, researchers must possess a repertoire of skills and techniques to ensure that comprehensive and representative data are collected during the interview. It is often also helpful to make 'field notes' during and immediately after each interview about observations, thoughts and ideas about the interview, as this can help in data analysis process. Groupsfocus groups share many common features with less structured interviews, but there is more to them than merely collecting similar data from many participants at once. A focus group is a group discussion on a particular topic organised for research purposes. This discussion is guided, monitored and recorded by a researcher (sometimes called a moderator or facilitator). 12focus groups were first used as a research method in market research, originating in the 1940s in the work of the bureau of applied social research at columbia university. Suggested criteria for using focus groups include:13as a standalone method, for research relating to group norms, meanings and processesin a multi-method design, to explore a topic or collect group language or narratives to be used in later stagesto clarify, extend, qualify or challenge data collected through other methodsto feedback results to research 12 suggests that focus groups should be avoided according to the following criteria:if listening to participants' views generates expectations for the outcome of the research that can not be fulfilledif participants are uneasy with each other, and will therefore not discuss their feelings and opinions openlyif the topic of interest to the researcher is not a topic the participants can or wish to discussif statistical data is required. There is no 'best' solution to group composition, and group mix will always impact on the data, according to things such as the mix of ages, sexes and social professional statuses of the participants. What is important is that the researcher gives due consideration to the impact of group mix (eg, how the group may interact with each other) before the focus group proceeds. Sometimes this means a pre-existing group interacts best for research purposes, and sometimes stranger groups. In other research projects it may be decided that stranger groups will be able to speak more freely without fear of repercussion, and challenges to other participants may be more challenging and probing, leading to richer data.

The optimum size for a focus group is six to eight participants (excluding researchers), but focus groups can work successfully with as few as three and as many as 14 participants. An interview schedulelike research interviews, the interview schedule for focus groups is often no more structured than a loose schedule of topics to be discussed. However, in preparing an interview schedule for focus groups, stewart and shamdasani14 suggest two general principles:questions should move from general to more specific questionsquestion order should be relative to importance of issues in the research can, however, be some conflict between these two principles, and trade offs are often needed, although often discussions will take on a life of their own, which will influence or determine the order in which issues are covered. Usually, less than a dozen predetermined questions are needed and, as with research interviews, the researcher will also probe and expand on issues according to the tingmoderating a focus group looks easy when done well, but requires a complex set of skills, which are related to the following principles:15participants have valuable views and the ability to respond actively, positively and respectfully. Expressing one's own views tends to give participants cues as to what to say (introducing bias), rather than the confidence to be open and honest about their own viewsbe prepared for views that may be unpalatably critical of a topic which may be important to youit is important to recognise that researchers' individual characteristics mean that no one person will always be suitable to moderate any kind of group. For example, in a school setting, pupils may behave like pupils, and in clinical settings, participants may be affected by any anxieties that affect them when they attend in a patient groups are usually recorded, often observed (by a researcher other than the moderator, whose role is to observe the interaction of the group to enhance analysis) and sometimes videotaped. Sometimes observational notes also need to be described in the transcripts in order for them to make analysis of qualitative data is explored in the final paper of this series. However, it is important to note that the analysis of focus group data is different from other qualitative data because of their interactive nature, and this needs to be taken into consideration during analysis. The analysis of focus group data must therefore take account of the group dynamics that have generated groups in dental researchfocus groups are used increasingly in dental research, on a diverse range of topics,16 illuminating a number of areas relating to patients, dental services and the dental profession. Demonstrating the use of the method with professional groups as subjects in dental research, gussy et al. This mixed method study was very important as the qualitative element was able to explain why the clinical trial failed, and this understanding may help researchers improve on the quantitative aspect of future studies, as well as making a valuable academic contribution in its own sioninterviews and focus groups remain the most common methods of data collection in qualitative research, and are now being used with increasing frequency in dental research, particularly to access areas not amendable to quantitative methods and/or where depth, insight and understanding of particular phenomena are required. The examples of dental studies that have employed these methods also help to demonstrate the range of research contexts to which interview and focus group research can make a useful contribution. In ritchie j, lewis j (eds) qualitative research practice: a guide for social science students and researchers. An exploratory qualitative study examining the social and psychological processes involved in regular dental attendance. A qualitative study exploring barriers to a model of shared care for pre-school children's oral health. Research fellow, faculty of health, sport and science, university of glamorgan, pontypridd, cf37 1dlresearch fellow, academic unit of primary care, university of bristol, bristol, bs8 2aadean and professor of dental public health, school of dentistry, dental health and biological sciences, school of dentistry, cardiff university, heath park, cardiff, cf14 4xyprofessor of paediatric dentistry, school of dentistry, dental health and biological sciences, school of dentistry, cardiff university, heath park, cardiff, cf14 4xycorrespondence to: p.

Homeadvance online you startpreparationsubmissionpost sions and jobsbdj marketplaceinformation collectionsbdj cpdbdj top ten h dental ibe to british dental ibe to british dental e navigation - this issuetable of contents for this issueprevious articlenext ad pdfsend to a ef lists 140 articles citing this articlescopus lists 152 articles citing this articleexport citationexport referencesrights and e navigationsynopsisabstractintroductionqualitative research interviewsfocus groupsconclusionreferencessearch pubmed forp. Related slideshares at ative data n nigatu haregu, phd hed on mar 6, presentation summarizes qualitative data analysis methods in a brief manner. Read and use for your qualitative you sure you want message goes er, university of technology and education, ho chi minh city, viet sity of presentation is definitely helpful for my knowledge of conducting a qualitative research project. G/ational development program m&e,coordinator, trainer, data manger, research assistant, a nice slide of presentation. Hope you will add more on qualitative coding and you sure you want message goes ion specialist _unicef nutrition specialist _ ant professor, leed ative data e of the presentationqualitative researchqualitative dataqualitative analysisqualitative softwarequalitative reporting ative research is qualitative research? Pope & mays bmj 1995;311:42-45 ions of qualitative methodsunderstanding context• how economic, political, social, cultural, environmental and organizational factors influence healthunderstanding people• how people make sense of their experiences of health and diseaseunderstanding interaction• how the various actors involved in different public health activities interact each other vs quan: basic differences qualitative quantitativepurpose to describe a situation, to measure magnitude-how gain insight to particular widespread is a practice... No pre-determined pre-determined response response categories categories, standard measuresdata in-depth explanatory data wide breadth of data from large from a small sample statistically representative sampleanalysis draws out patterns from tests hypotheses, uses data to concepts and insights support conclusionresult illustrative explanation & numerical aggregation in individual responses summaries, responses are clusteredsampling theoretical statistical vs quan: analytic approaches quantitative qualitativeresearch question fixed/focused broader, contextual, flexibleexpected outcome identified in usually not predefined, advance emergent research questionhierarchy of phases linearity circularconfounding factors controlled during searched in the field design & analysistime dimension slower rapid to slower vs quan: data collection method quantitative qualitativesampling random sampling open ended and less structured protocols (flexible)tools structured data depend on interactive collection instruments interviewsresults produce results that produce results that give generalize, compare and meaning, experience and views summarize for combining qual-quan methods qual-quan combining models sequential use model concurrent use modelqual-quan quan-qual quan qual quan qual model model model model ant concepts in designing qualitative researchconcept descriptionnatural setting participants are free from any control & data are collected in their natural environmentholism the whole is more than the sum, take magnitude of contextual factors in to accounthuman as a researcher is involved in every step being responsive,research flexible, adaptive and good listenerinstrumentemergent design study design emerges as further insights are gained through data collection and analysissaturation or a stage where additional interview or observation is notredundancy believed to add new information-enough is enough! Qualitative study designsstudy design descriptionethnography portrait of people- study of the story and culture of a group usually to develop cultural awareness & sensitivityphenomenology study of individual’s lived experiences of events-e. The experience of aids caregrounded theory going beyond adding to the existing body of knowledge-developing a new theory about a phenomenon-theory grounded on dataparticipatory action individuals & groups researching their own personalresearch beings, socio-cultural settings and experiencescase study in-depth investigation of a single or small number of units at a point (over a period) in time. Evaluation of s service ng in qualitative research • to generate a sample which allows understanding the social process aim of interest • purposive sampling- selection of the most productive sample to answer the research questiontechnique • ongoing interpretation of data will indicate who should be approached, including identification of missing voices • the one that adequately answers the research question-until new size categories, themes or explanations stop emerging from the data • depend on available time and resources ng techniques in qualitative research snow ball/chain  extreme/deviant  homogeneous  sampling case sampling sampling maximum  convenience  opportunistic variation sampling sampling sampling ative data of qualitative datastructured text, (writings, stories, survey comments,news articles, books etc)unstructured text (transcription, interviews, focusgroups, conversation)audio recordings, musicvideo recordings (graphics, art, pictures, visuals). Data collection methodsmethods brief explanationobservation the researcher gets close enough to study subjects to observe (with/without participation) usually to understand whether people do what they say they do, and to access tacit knowledge of subjectsinterview this involves asking questions, listening to and recording answers from an individual or group on a structured, semi-structured or unstructured format in an in-depth mannerfocus group focused (guided by a set of questions) and interactivediscussion session with a group small enough for everyone to have chance to talk and large enough to provide diversity of opinionsother methods rapid assessment procedure (rap), free listing, pile sort, ranking, life history (biography) ons for qualitative interviewstypes of examplesquestionshypothetical if you get the chance to be an hiv scientist, do you think you can discover a vaccine for hiv? Of qualitative questions• experience: when you told your manager that the project has failed, what happened? Ing transcripttranscribe word by word (verbatim)consider non-verbal expressionstry to do the transcribing yourselfbe patient-time consuming ing metadata(log)project/research titledate of data collectionplace of data collectionid-code of informant(s)research teammethod of data collectiondocumentation type: tape recorder, notesand observations ative analysis is qualitative data analysis? Data analysis (qda) is the range ofprocesses and procedures whereby we move from thequalitative data that have been collected into some formof explanation, understanding or interpretation of thepeople and situations we are is usually based on an interpretative idea is to examine the meaningful and symboliccontent of qualitative data http:///intro_qda/what_is_ ches in analysisdeductive approach – using your research questions to group the data and then look for similarities and differences – used when time and resources are limited – used when qualitative research is a smaller component of a larger quantitative studyinductive approach – used when qualitative research is a major design of the inquiry – using emergent framework to group the data and then look for relationships ative vs quantitative data analysisqualitative quantitative• begins with more general • key explanatory and open-ended questions, outcome variables moving toward greater identified in advance precision as more • contextual/confounding information emerges variables identified and• pre-defined variables are controlled not identified in advance • data collection and• preliminary analysis is an analysis distinctly inherent part of data separate phases collection • analysis use formal statistical procedures for helping the analytical processsummaries: should contain the key points thatemerge from undertaking the specific activityself memos: allow you to make a record of theideas which occur to you about any aspect ofyour research, as you think of themresearcher used in qualitative data analysistheory: a set of interrelated concepts, definitions and propositionsthat presents a systematic view of events or situations by specifyingrelations among variablesthemes: idea categories that emerge from grouping of lower-leveldata pointscharacteristic: a single item or event in a text, similar to anindividual response to a variable or indicator in a quantitativeresearch. It is the smallest unit of analysiscoding: the process of attaching labels to lines of text so that theresearcher can group and compare similar or related pieces ofinformationcoding sorts: compilation of similarly coded blocks of text fromdifferent sources in to a single file or reportindexing: process that generates a word list comprising all thesubstantive words and their location within the texts entered in to aprogram ples of qualitative data analysis1. Exceptional cases may yield insights in to a problem or new idea for further inquiry es of qualitative data analysis• analysis is circular and non-linear• iterative and progressive• close interaction with the data• data collection and analysis is simultaneous• level of analysis varies• uses inflection i.

This was good”• can be sorted in many ways• qualitative data by itself has meaning, i. Apple” ng, collecting and thinking model think  collect  about  things things notice things process of qualitative data analysisstep 1: organize the datastep 2: identify frameworkstep 3: sort data in to frameworkstep 4: use the framework for descriptive analysisstep 5: second order analysis 2: identify a framework• read, read, read... Identify a framework – explanatory – guided by the research question – exploratory-guided by the data• framework will structure, label and define data• framework=coding plan 3: sort data in to framework• code the data• modify the framework• data entry if use computer packages http:///intro_qda/how_what_to_ 4: use framework in descriptive analysis• descriptive analysis – range of responses in categories – identify recurrent themesstop here if exploratory research 5: second order analysis• identify recurrent themes• notice patterns in the data• identify respondent clusters – search for causality – identify related themes• build sequence of events• search data to answer research questions• develop hypothesis and test of qualitative analysis• content analysis• narrative analysis• discourse analysis• framework analysis• grounded theory http:/// t analysis• content analysis is the procedure for the categorization of verbal or behavioural data for the purpose of classification, summarization and tabulation• the content can be analyzed on two levels – descriptive: what is the data? Http:///guides/research/content/ ive analysis• narratives are transcribed experiences• every interview/observation has narrative aspect-the researcher has to sort-out and reflect up on them, enhance them, and present them in a revised shape to the reader• the core activity in narrative analysis is to reformulate stories presented by people in different contexts and based on their different experiences http:///garson/pa765/ gies for analyzing observations• chronology: describe what was observed chronologically overtime, to tell the story from the beginning to the end• key events: describing critical incidents or major events, not necessarily in order of occurrence but in order of importance• various settings: describe various places, sites, settings, or locations in which events/behaviours of interest happen• people: describing individuals or groups involved in the events• process: describing important processes (e. Control, recruitment, decision-making, socialization, communication)• issues: illuminating key issues – how did participants change y in qualitative studiescriteria issues solutioncredibility truth value prolonged & persistent observation,(=internal validity) triangulation, peer-debriefing, member checks, deviant case analysistransferability applicability thick description, referential adequacy,(=external validity) prevention of premature closure of the data, reflexive journaldependability consistency dependability audit(=reliability) reflexive journalconformability neutrality conformability audit(=objectivity) reflexive journal http:///intro_qda/qualitative_ ative software ng and using computer software• it is possible to conduct qualitative analysis without a computer• concerns: relying too much on computers shortcuts will impede the process by distancing the researcher from the text• advantages: ease the burden of cutting and pasting by hand, and produce more powerful analysis by creation and insertion of codes in to text files, indexing, construction of hyperlinks, and selective retrieval of text segments ative analysis with softwares• with qualitative softwares, your workflow will be similar, but each step will be made easier by the computer’s capability for data storage, automated searching and display. You can use text, picture, audio and video source files directly• you can assign codes manually (autocode) to any section of text, audio or video or part of a picture• analysis is easy with the report feature, where you can select a subset of cases and codes to work with, choose what data to use, and sort your reports automatically http:/// of computer software in qualitative studies1) transcribing data2) writing/editing the data3) storage of data4) coding data (keywords or tags)5) search and retrieval of data6) data linking of related text7) writing/editing memos about the data8) display of selected reduced data9) graphic mapping10) preparing reports http:///intro_caqdas/what_the_sw_can_ to choose software - key questionstype and amount of datatheoretical approach to analysistime to learn vs time to analyzelevel of analysis (simple or detailed)desired “closeness” to the dataany desired quantification of resultsindividual or working as a teampeer software support availableany cost constraints (weitzman and miles 1995; lewins and silver 2005). G a qualitative report g qualitative reportqualitative research generates rich information- thus deciding where to focus and the level of sharing is very challenging. Http:///michael/qual_ g ready to write• must come close to the point of maturation – be aware of resource constraints and sponsors interests• organize your materials – list of codes – summary device: tables, thematic structure• writing a chronicle (“writing it out of your head”) ng a style and focus• format • research report • scientific research article • report to donor • field report • evaluation report... Focus – academic: conceptual framework/theories, methodology and interpretation – practitioners: concrete suggestions for better practice, policy recommendations – lay readers: problem solving, reform on practice/policy ions in the report format• problem-solving approach (problem-based)• narrative approach (chronological)• policy approach (evidence-based)• analytic approach (theory/conceptual framework based) ing qualitative research• typically use quotes from data – descriptive – direct link with data – credibility• ways to use quotes – illustrative – range of issues – opposing views ing without quotes• list range of issues• rank or sequence issues• describe types of behaviour, strategies, experiences• report proportions (most, many, the majority)• flow diagrams: decision-making, event sequencing etc retation• interpretation is the act of identifying and explaining the core meaning of the data• organizing and connecting emerging themes, sub-themes and contradictions to get the bigger picture-what it all means – think how best to integrate data from multiple sources and methods• make generalization-providing answers to questions of social and theoretical significance• ensuring credible or trustworthy interpretations rd report format1. References ing techniques: visual course - linkedin ic research foundations: course - linkedin cation for interactive course - linkedin tative data ative data analysis (steps). Data analysis r 10-data analysis & mae nalzaro,bsm,bsn, analysis analysis tation, analysis and interpretation of sent successfully.. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your can see my paperwrite to conduct ments with tical treatment of tical treatment of rth kalla 122. This page on your website:Statistical treatment of data is essential in order to make use of the data in the right form. Raw data collection is only one aspect of any experiment; the organization of data is equally important so that appropriate conclusions can be drawn. This is what statistical treatment of data is all article is a part of the guide:Select from one of the other courses available:Experimental ty and ical tion and psychology e projects for ophy of sance & tics beginners tical bution in er 17 more articles on this 't miss these related articles:2branches of statistics. Statistical treatment of data is essential in all experiments, whether social, scientific or any other form.

Statistical treatment of data greatly depends on the kind of experiment and the desired result from the example, in a survey regarding the election of a mayor, parameters like age, gender, occupation, etc. Therefore the data needs to be treated in these reference important aspect of statistical treatment of data is the handling of errors. These are the cases of false positives and false negatives that are important to understand and eliminate in order to make sense from the result of the ent of data and distribution trying to classify data into commonly known patterns is a tremendous help and is intricately related to statistical treatment of data. This is because distributions such as the normal probability distribution occur very commonly in nature that they are the underlying distributions in most medical, social and physical ore if a given sample size is known to be normally distributed, then the statistical treatment of data is made easy for the researcher as he would already have a lot of back up theory in this aspect. Care should always be taken, however, not to assume all data to be normally distributed, and should always be confirmed with appropriate tical treatment of data also involves describing the data. Therefore two distributions with the same mean can have wildly different standard deviation, which shows how well the data points are concentrated around the tical treatment of data is an important aspect of all experimentation today and a thorough understanding is necessary to conduct the right experiments with the right inferences from the data obtained.. Take it with you wherever you research council of ibe to our rss blakstad on are free to copy, share and adapt any text in the article, as long as you give appropriate credit and provide a link/reference to this ign upprivacy 696 research collection strategies ii:What is qualitative research? Research is aimed at gaining a deep a specific organization or event, rather a than surface a large sample of a population. It aims to provide an explicit the structure, order, and broad patterns found among a group of is also called ethnomethodology or field research. It generates human groups in social ative research does not introduce manipulate variables, or impose the researcher's operational variables on the participants. It is more flexible in that it can adjust to the ts, data collection tools, and data collection methods can be the research ative research aims to get a better h first hand experience, truthful reporting, and quotations of sations. It aims to understand how the participants derive their surroundings, and how their meaning influences their ative research uses observation as the tion method. Observation is useful for generating ptions of organizations or events, for obtaining information otherwise inaccessible, and for conducting research when other ation is used extensively in studies by psychologists,Anthropologists, sociologists, and program evaluators. The context or behavior is included in observations of both people and their it can be used with inarticulate subjects, such as children or ing to express ipant ipant observation is a period of intensive ction between the researcher and the subjects, in the latter's becomes the full-time occupation of the researcher. People act in terms of g of these structures for s of observation vary with the position researcher, but can vary from covert to overt. On the one hand, cher may begin as an overt observer only and slowly become an r, this creates problems of reactivity to the influence or the researcher.

On the other hand, the researcher may begin as a ipant only, and move toward being a participant-observer. Other sources of data may al records, private records, anecdotes, erosion or accretion, ms include sampling, reliability and validity, as well as nce and memory qualify as research, observation:1) serves a formulated research purpose;. Selection of a site and definition of problems, concepts, researcher tentatively identifies the phenomenon of interest, and tries to discern what will yield the tanding of that problem or phenomenon. The researcher then inary concepts and what data will be gathered as indicators of those. The researcher chooses a strategy to move into the research researcher has to get past the "gatekeepers. Include: adopting a passive role at first,Learning the ropes; don't seek data aggressively until later; be a researcher,Not a therapist; answer questions but don't be an expert on anything; and truthful; don't be forced into a particular role; and don't y identified with any one person or subgroup until you are sure not cost you information in the long run; be non-partisan. Selecting people and events to researcher may identify primary sources of information,Known as "key informants. These people may be relied upon in the help the researcher get acculturated to the situation. The researcher must also be aware of possible n the validity and intention of volunteered statements versus are made in response to the researcher's questions. Behavior may be different between the one informant alone, compared to the researcher and the informant informant's group. The researcher must determine n things are not being said because of his or her role as "researcher". Analyzing researcher can check whether none, all, or tion of behaviors or events occur under distinct circumstances. Cher can generate a preliminary model to explain the data ations place particular social facts in reference to their r observations are then collected which can strengthen or researcher's preliminary model. The major problem is how to present the data in a brief but ences between quantitative and quantitative studies, the research methods are observation begins and specify the methods of observation be used and the type of data which may be collected. After analysis is complete, no more qualitative studies, research methods are which suggest the type of methods of observation which may be used type of data which may be collected. Analysis and data collection proceed in a n, where preliminary analysis informs subsequent data ms with qualitative studies include:-masses of data to transcribe.

Difficult to control for researcher ison of different "field" obtaining of information or telephone ipant ncy r efficient nor lly known rules and te but for non-verbal -depth description of r adequate nor be adequate and efficient.