Research proposal sections
Centrealbany campusmanawatu campuswellington campusstudent liaison advisorsinternational enquiriesmedia enquiriesalumnihuman resourcesjustice of the peaceaccidents and emergenciesstaff y | alumni portal | staffroom | university > owll > assignment types > research proposal > research proposal ch proposal are three key messages to communicate when writing a research proposal:That you are competent to do may be asked to write a proposal that includes all of these sections. Particularly at undergraduate level, your proposal may focus on three or four of the following sections. This is the general order that proposals follow, however you should refer to any specific guidelines on structure from your lecturer or title should answer the question: what is your research about? It should be a short, concise abstract for a proposal should include the topic, aims of your study, who will be involved in the research, the methods and the timeframe. It is usually concluded with a statement that explains the relevance of the research (why it is needed). Abstracts for proposals are generally in the future tense (you outline what you intend to do). For more information on writing abstracts see uction and/or some proposals, the introduction and background are separate; in others they serve the same purpose and are combined. The section should include:What prompted your interest in the nce to previous research (literature). Your research will contribute to the research and the may include (if not under separate headings). Research objectives/questions or is the research question you are trying to find the answer to? Literature review for a research proposal may draw on a detailed review that you have already conducted, or may be specific to the development of your literature review needs to demonstrate that you have read broadly on the topic and its wider context. It should highlight trends in the literature relating to your research topic, including research areas, methodology, theoretical approaches and findings. Indicate the gaps your research is addressing and note the original contribution it will make the field in literature review helps inform and set up your theoretical framework, methodology and research information on literature reviews and article critiques see literature reviews and article : some assignments have requested students list the literature they will include in their research (rather than reviewing). Ensure that your literature review section reflects the requirements of your tical g on the different theories you have identified in your literature review, you need to identify which theoretical approach (or approaches) will be employed in your research and proposals distinguish between methodology (the why of how you will gather your data) and the method or research design (the how). Your methodology may include your research paradigm and epistemologies that underpin your research and your rationale for ch design and with the theoretical framework and methodology, it is important to demonstrate that you have read other studies in your area of research. You should be able to address the strengths and limitations of the methods in similar research and justify why you have chosen the method that you your method, you should discuss the following aspects:Participants: who will you be doing your research with (individuals, businesses, organisations? Indicate how analysing the data in this way will answer your research tions: look at your methodology and consider any weaknesses or limitations that may occur as a result of your research design.
What is included in a research proposal
Address the limitations by indicating how you will minimise all research needs to consider ethics. In this section you should outline your awareness and understanding of ethical issues associated with your research proposal. You should consider the rights of those being researched (including informed consent), your responsibility, and how the data will be collected, stored and disposed of. You should indicate whether your proposal will require approval from an ethics committee and if so, which more information about research and ethics at massey university visit research icating the may need to consider how the information you discover will be shared with the wider (research/academic) community. In most cases, a written document (report, research paper, thesis or journal article) is an appropriate means of communicating your findings. If your research is intended to assist a broader audience (for example specific members of the community), other forms to disseminate your knowledge could include conference presentations, pamphlets, musical/theatrical performance, film or general media icance of is important to convince your reader of the validity of your research. You need to communicate enthusiasm and confidence for the research, arguing clearly as to the contribution it will make to the subject area and discipline in general. Timeline that estimates how long each task will take helps determine the scope of your research and if it is achievable within a given timeframe. Your research proposal timeline should include time allocation for a detailed literature review, time for approval from ethics committee, reviewing or testing of research design, data collection and analysis and writing up of is important to be realistic with the timeframe, consider if you are able to dedicate full time work to the research, of if it is to be conducted while you are studying other papers, working part or full time or have family when requesting funding for research, a budget is included to indicate where funds will be allocated. A budget may include items such as the cost of survey design and printing, transcribers, software or research assistants. This could be included in the is important to include all references you have used when writing your proposal. This demonstrates that you are serious about your research and have invested both time and thought into the may include copies of letters seeking participants, consent forms and draft surveys/ updated on 19 june, 2014. Click on each to learn more about each page | introduction | procedure or methodology | references | title page provides the first impression for your audience of your proposal. Choice and syntax are so precise in a research proposal title that some researchers create the titles for their projects last in the proposal writing process. They do this so that they can be as precise as possible in their wording and sentence structure in order to best represent their following list contains example of research proposal titles in a variety of fields of investigation. You looks like youse yo’ own daughter’: figuring (in)fertility and maternity in their eyes were watching effects of estrogen, alcohol, and age on the astrocytes in female rats following an inflammatory a title page is created, it often is arranged in this format: example of title website provides formatting tips to assist you in the general layout and design of a research proposal title page. It also contains general guidelines and further descriptions for the parts of a research tion: in your reflection journal, explain why the title is so important to a research proposal.
Your response should be 2-3 paragraphs in statement of the icance of the ons or introduction is very important, actually the most important part of your proposal. If your introduction gets your audience's attention, they will stay with you throughout your proposal. Thus the introduction presents a background and statement of context for your rest of your proposal supports this section. Key parts of the introduction often become a part of a research abstract that may be used when you present your completed investigation and conclusions to an audience. Although these aspects of an introduction are described separately, some parts may, in reality, be combined together when the actual proposal is introductions include these items in some form in the statement of the e of the icance of the ons or way that introductions are crafted is as individualized as the proposal that follows. You will see actual introductions later when you begin to review research proposals for specific disciplines, but here are some "how to" procedures from research courses that explain the construction of the introduction paragraph. Cite relevant literature that calls for the need for the research in this area, or demonstrates the lack of attention to the topic. In your own words, describe how you think this study will be be the intended audience for your research (e. Your research question(s) or the problem you want to address as clearly as possible. How you came to this question/problem based on your previous interests (research you might have been involved in, other courses you have taken, your work experience, discussions, etc. Tentative thesis (argument) (your best answer to the research question based on your work to date). Section sets the context for your proposed project and must capture the reader's n the background of your study starting from a broad picture narrowing in on your research what is known about your research topic as far as it is relevant to your relevant introduction should be at a level that makes it easy to understand for readers with a general science background, for example your tion: based on the three examples, what are the characteristics that most introductions seem to have in common? Answer these questions as an entry in your reflection journal,Clear statement of the most important aspect of a research proposal is the clarity of the research problem. As a part of the introduction, effective problem statements answer the question “why does this research need to be conducted? A research proposal may not be considered acceptable or credible if you fail to clearly identify the problem. Your literature review should be a helpful the problem statement itself is just one sentence, it is always accompanied in the larger introduction by several paragraphs that help to elaborate and that may include other elements of the research proposal. Understand what makes ___ successful or is then followed by a paragraph which describes the objectives that support the goal of the research words goal and objective are often confused with each other.
Be sure to include specific ideas from the content above and your own ideas and to sure that your proposal is understandable to a general reader who does not know much about your field of investigation. This section gives the definition of important terms and concepts that are usually stated in the objectives, hypothesis, and research questions. An example of an operational definition is: "for the purpose of this research, improvement is operationally defined as posttest score minus pretest score". Clearest way to arrange your definitions page is to arrange terms in alphabetical order, with definitions stated in complete following is an example of a definition section from a proposal entitled "self-directed learning readiness and life satisfaction among older adults. The following excellent sources for defining terms:Thinkmap visual tion: write one paragraph for each of the sources linked above in your reflection journal, describing what is there and how you might be able to use icance of the explanation of the significance of a study may include the meaning of the research work to you personally and should include how your research benefits or impacts others in part or whole. You must show that you have looked through the literature and have found the latest updates in your field of study in order for a proposal to be convincing to an audience. A discussion of the present understanding and/or state of knowledge concerning the problem or issue sets the context for your to ons or ons and hypotheses are testable explanations that are proposed before the methodology of a project is conducted, but after the researcher has had an opportunity to develop background knowledge (much like the literature review that you just finished). Although research questions and hypotheses are different in their sentence structure and purpose, both seek to predict relationships. Deciding whether to use questions or hypothesis depends on facts such as the purpose of the study, the approach and design of the methodology, and the expected audience for the research proposal. There are three types of research questions:A descriptive research question seeks to identify and describe some example: what is the ethnic breakdown of patients seen in the emergency room for non- emergency conditions. Differences research question asks if there are differences between groups on some example: do patients who receive massage experience more relief from sore muscle pain than patients who take a hot bath? Of which is selected, questions or hypotheses, this element of the research proposal needs to be as specific as possible in whatever field of study you are investigating. How do you think that the researchers were able to determine these were sound propositions to make? Record your response in your reflective to of the collection and ility and validity of methods and ces and you know that the key element of your research proposal will be its methodology section? How can they believe that you will produce results if you do not tell them about the methods you intend to use in order to assess and study your research and data? Based on your research proposal's methodology, the grant foundation will either approve or disapprove your investigation, and will determine the amount of your is time to examine and study research proposal methodology. A research proposal's methodology outlines the strategy for conducting an investigation in order to answer a research question.
As a part of an overall research project proposal, the researcher will need to plan out and share the procedures that will be used in the this section you will review different approaches, designs, procedures, and methods for investigating your area of research. Specific tools will be described and evaluated so that you can determine which ones will help you to meet your research overall design of a research project consists of its methods and procedures. It is also possible to have a mixture of the two approaches, both in overall design and in the specific methods used in the researchers, including you, need to understand the full nature of both quantitative and qualitative approaches to research and evaluation methodologies in order to appropriately select the overall design that best fits your investigation. While described as distinct terms, qualitative and quantitative approaches to research methods and design are complementary and can overlap to procedure or are the main types of qualitative approaches to research? There are many different investigations that can be done, a study with a qualitative approach generally can be described with the characteristics of one of the following three types:Historical research describes past events, problems, issues and facts. Study of the historical trends in public laws by looking recorded at a local raphic research develops in-depth analytical descriptions of current systems, processes, and phenomena and/or understandings of the shared beliefs and practices of a particular group or culture. It is a complete description of present specific form of ethnographic research is called a case study. It is an analysis of es of ethnographic research:A case study of parental involvement at a specific magnet school. Study of primate behavior in the wild measuring the amount of time an animal engaged in a specific ive research focuses on studying a single person and gathering data through the collection of stories that are used to construct a narrative about the individual’s experience and the meanings he/she attributes to es of narrative research:A study of the experiences of an autistic student who has moved from a self-contained program to an inclusion setting. Use those terms to jog your memory as you write a one paragraph summary of what you understand the qualitative approach to research design to be. Just your own words and to procedure or of the ine what your role will be in the collection of the research material. Evaluate how your own bias may affect the methodology, outcomes, and analysis of times this element of the research proposal will be affected by ethics. In addition, this section is often interwoven in a narrative design explanation with other elements of the the excerpt below from a research proposal. See if you can identify how the researcher has defined his or her role in the investigation from the narrative explanation that is ch design and ing these lines of thinking, a qualitative study of the social world of full-time adult undergraduates is proposed, using semi-structured interviews as the primary research approach. How does the researcher characterize his or her role in the research process, both directly and indirectly, in the proposal? Click to see a larger version of the section links to a separate page which would includes: pros/cons, guide, resources, examples and to procedure or must be considered in all phases of a research project, from brainstorming ideas, to fundraising grants, to designing studies, to conducting interviews, and right through to final publication of final national institute of environmental heath science and the national institutes of health have a thorough consideration of all aspects of research ethics for all types of research designs in the article, “what is ethics in research & why is it important? You read the article, generate a list of all of the various ways in which ethics impacts the research "what is ethics in research & why is it important?
Which one of all of the concerns related to research ethics is the most important to remember? What did you learn that might prepare you to consider ethics for your own research investigation? If the results of a study can be reproduced under a similar methodology, then the research methods are considered to be ty determines whether the research truly measures what it was intended to measure, or how truthful the research results are. In other words, does the research instrument allow you to hit "the bull’s eye" of your research objectives? Researchers generally determine validity by asking a series of questions, and will often look for the answers in the research of others. Each type of research design has its own standards for reliability and chers argue that maintaining the trustworthiness of qualitative research depends on the same issues of quantitative studies known as validity and reliability. While it is difficult in qualitative research to prove validity and reliability through reproducing the same results over and over, like a researcher can do in quantitative research, some qualitative researchers believe that the concept of dependability and consistency in results can develop a sense of validity for qualitative tency of data is achieved when the steps of the research are verified through examination of such items as raw data, data reduction products, and process notes. Because it is more difficult to define reliability and validity in qualitative terms, many researchers have developed their own concepts of validity and have often generated or adopted what they consider to be more appropriate terms, such as, quality, rigor and trustworthiness. The idea of discovering truth through measures of reliability and validity is replaced by the idea of trustworthiness, which is “defensible”and establishing confidence in the ulation is one test for improving the validity and reliability of research or evaluation of findings. By using at least three different methods, the researcher is about to obtain multiple, diverse perceptions of a single research tools and models have their own tests for reliability and validity built in to their basic procedures and methodologies. As you explore and apply these methods to your own research investigation, always question if you are implementing them in a way that makes the process and the results reliable and resources on this topic:Validity and reliability in ing the quality and credibility of qualitative ch methods tion: in your reflection journal, sketch a visual representation of what triangulation means in a general sense. Probability sampling methods are more likely to result in selecting a sample that is representative of the population that the researcher wishes to study. The following tool is helpful in generating appropriate sample abstract from the national institutes of health details the degree to which sample size and population sample characteristics can demonstrate the reliability of conclusions drawn from more information about reliability and validity in quantitative studies, visit the resources ch methods ty & reliability in quantitative tative research ty and tion: in your reflection journal create a t-chart, either using a table or drawing tool. Inexperienced researchers tend to underestimate the amount of time that the various stages of research will take. Be generous when working out time frames and check them with a more experienced researcher. You also have to keep your goals and objectives for the proposal in mind when setting deadlines for progress and consider what benchmarks you will use to determine your progress. You should include time to prepare the final research product as er the following questions when setting up your schedule:When will your research start and finish?
Way to organize yourself is to create a basic table in a word document or do look at other are also online calculators that will assist you in setting deadlines for phases of the research ing samples of other research investigation timelines can give ideas for what you would like to include in your own schedule and how you will budget your time. Study the following example to see how this researcher organized his section presents my schedule, costs, and qualifications for completing the proposed research. Consider how each was organized and what components were research project ch repository project – example tion: based on your exploration of the timetables above, what are the key requirements for a research proposal's timetable? While exhaustive details are not required for a general proposal, an assessment of the potential resource requirements is essential for good research planning. A proposal that neglects resource use or underestimates the resources required suggests a poorly thought out materials and equipment that you need for your research investigation will vary based on your methodology. The following questions should help guide you in determining what you should include in this section of your proposal. These unique documents are not available on interlibrary loan and must be consulted website lists the many resources that some universities offer to students who are completing research investigations. Note: the evaluation panel reviews cost information after considering the technical aspects of the proposals. Developing a research tion: beside calculating costs, what other benefits does planning a budget provide a researcher? Explain your ideas in a one-paragraph response in your reflection to procedure or tions are influences that the researcher can not tions are shortcomings, conditions or influences that cannot be controlled by the researcher that place restrictions on your methodology and conclusions. The instruments you qualitative research these limitations will often be that the findings cannot be generalized to the larger population. This research was carefully prepared, i am still aware of its limitations and of all, the research was conducted in the two intermediate classes which have lasted for eight weeks. Eight weeks is not enough for the researcher to observe all of the students’ speaking performance in their classes. In fact, it would have been sort of objective if it had been decided by two or three to procedure or tations are choices made by the researcher which should be tations describe the boundaries that you have set for the study. In educational research the delimitations will frequently deal with such items as population/sample, treatment(s), setting, and instrumentation. Researcher chooses to look only at senior college swimmers or adolescents between 18 to 19 years of researcher picks a particular instrument to collect data with or limits the number of questions tion: answer in a two or three paragraph response in your reflection journal. Why is important that a researcher consider both limitations and delimitations when planning his or her methods?
Be sure to include the definitions of the terms and specific details in your to procedure or the section, the researcher discusses the possible outcomes of the study, its relation to theory and literature, and its potential impact or application. Although all of these ideas may change in light of the research process or the final results, it is always good to plan with the end product in section may also include an interpretation and explanation of results as related to your question; a discussion on or suggestions for further work that may help address the problem you are trying to solve; an analysis of the expected impact of the findings and product on the audience; or a discussion on any problems that could hinder your creative yourself the following questions:In what form will your findings be presented? How this group presented their tion: think back to the purposes for research conclusions and findings (basic, practical, and applied). Explain in a one or two paragraph entry in your reflection journal what the connection is between these purposes for research and the final product of the research investigation. Use specific terms and details in your to procedure or a running list of all references as you work through the proposal. You will need to have this list to avoid plagiarism and chances are you will need to go back to certain references throughout the entire research experience. Use the appropriate form of citations for your the references section from your literature review for a comprehensive guide to completing the reference section of your proposal. You do not need to duplicate the efforts of your literature review, but please remember to add any new references that you utilized for your methodology, data collection tools, a few appendices to the end of your proposal allows you to show how thoroughly you have prepared your research project without obliging the reader to wade through all the details. Results of the literature search, pilot data, data collection forms, patient information sheets, and consent forms can all be added as appendices to include documents, pilot study material, questions for interviews, survey instruments, explanatory statement to participants, likely parts to incorporate in the appendices are as follows:Distribution plan - a vital part of the proposal which is the plan for distributing of information about the project to the audience. Indent the first line 5-7 e of apa-formatted now that you have reviewed all of the elements of the research proposal, it is time to start planning for your own. You are now ready to begin stage two: how do i write my own research proposal? To the stages of the research overview for step 4a - key elements of a research unit is designed to teach students about the elements of a research proposal as well as to provide multiple models for students as they prepare to write their own research proposal in unit 4b. Students will be able to:Explain why a title is so important to a research fy the characteristics of effective the problem in a teacher-selected research ize the differences between goals and objectives in a research subject-specific and technical research the significance of investigations included in the literature be the factors that impact the decision to use questions or an hypothesis in the research e and contrast qualitative and quantitative research an extended constructed response characterizing the role of the researcher in the research fy the pros and cons of the following data collection and analysis procedures: interview, observations, focus groups, case studies, questionnaires/surveys, and document te a list of the various ways in which ethics impacts the research reliability and validity of methods and n how a timetable and management plan affects the onal resources and lesson plans are available through the research course g a research g a research guide will help you understand what a research proposal is, how to write one, and will show you the proper resources to perfect your is a research proposal? Components of a research y components of a research als for sponsored activities generally follow a similar format; variations depend upon whether the proposer is seeking support for a research grant, a training grant, or a conference or curriculum development project. Your proposal will be a variation on this basic page: most sponsoring agencies specify the format for the title page, and some provide special forms to summarize basic administrative and fiscal data for the project. Titles are brief but comprehensive enough to indicate the nature of the proposed ct: the funder may use the abstract to make preliminary decisions about the proposal. This summary should also outline funding requirements and describe the applicant’s of contents: brief proposals with few sections usually do not need a table of contents.
Long and detailed proposals may require, in addition to a table of contents, a list of illustrations (or figures) and a list of tables. If all of these sections are included, they should follow the order mentioned, and each should be numbered with lower-case roman numerals. The table of contents lists all major parts and divisions, including the uction (including statement of problem, purpose of research, and significance of research): the introduction of a proposal begins with a capsule statement and then proceeds to introduce the subject to a stranger. It should give enough background to enable an informed lay person to place your particular research problem in a context of common knowledge and should show how its solution will advance the field or be important for some other work. The statement describes the significance of the problem(s), referring to appropriate studies or ound (including literature survey): be sure to (1) make clear what the research problem is and exactly what has been accomplished; (2) to give evidence of your own competence in the field; and (3) to show why the previous work needs to be continued. Discussions of work done by others should lead the reader to a clear idea of how you will build upon past research and also how your work differs from ption of proposed research (including method or approach): the comprehensive explanation of the proposed research is addressed to other specialists in your field. This section is the heart of the proposal and is the primary concern of the technical reviewers. Remember as you lay out the research design to:Be realistic about what can be explicit about any assumptions or hypotheses the research method rests clear about the focus of the as detailed as possible about the schedule of the proposed specific about the means of evaluating the data or the certain that the connection between the research objectives and the research method is out preliminary work developing an analytical method or laying groundwork as phase the end of this phase you will be able to report that you have accomplished something and are ready to undertake phase ption of relevant institutional resources: generally this section details the resources available to the proposed project and, if possible, shows why the sponsor should select this university and this investigator for this particular research. Some relevant points may be:The institution's demonstrated skill in the related research abundance of experts in related areas that may indirectly benefit the supportive services that will directly benefit the the institution's unique or unusual research facilities or resources available to the of references: the style of the bibliographical item itself depends on the disciplinary field. Elements of a uction and the part of the paper that provides readers with the background the research reported in the paper. Its purpose is to establish a the research, so that readers can understand how it is related to ch (wilkinson, 1991, p. It is essential in all ch and much qualitative terms intelligible to someone who is generally sophisticated but who vely uninformed in the area of your ents answer the question why does this research need to be a researcher is unable to answer this question clearly and succinctly, t resorting to hyperspeaking (i. Focusing on problems of macro or tions that certainly will not be informed or alleviated by the study), statement of the problem will come off as ambiguous and als, the statement of the problem is generally incorporated into uction; academic proposals for theses or dissertations should have a separate ent should provide a specific and accurate synopsis of the e of the study (locke, spirduso, & silverman, 1987, p. If e is not clear to the writer, it cannot be clear to the delimit the specific area of the research. When defining terms, make a between using descriptive or operational ic method of inquiry to be analysis in the of the literature provides the background and context for the research problem. Establish the need for the research and indicate that the writer dgeable about the area (wiersma, 1995, p. Check with your ons and/or ons are relevant to normative or census type research.
Or, students in quartile of the self-regulated inventory distribution icantly higher grade point averages than do students in the hypothesis is used if theory/literature does not suggest a onship between the variables under investigation; the alternative lly reserved for situations in which theory/research suggests onship or directional ret any possible outcomes with respect to the questions or hypotheses. If appropriate, use pattern of wording and word order in all design--methods and ures section is really the heart of the research proposal. In the latter case, a pilot study instruments in most cases provides the operational definition of constructs,This is a crucial step in the proposal. Think about implicationshow results of may affect scholarly research, theory, practice, entions, curricula, counseling, the significance of your study, ask yourself the following to the theoretical framework that framed the study? For example, committees may require evidence that familiar with a broader spectrum of literature than that nt to your research. Your committee chair before the need for complete documentation generally dictates the inclusion riate appendixes in proposals (although this is generally not the case s conference proposals). Description of the questions you are examining and an the specific question(s) that you are n how these research questions are related to the larger issues be what specific claim, hypothesis, and/or model of will evaluate with these n what it will show about the psychology of language if your n what it will suggest about the psychology of language if your hypothesis. Significance and s, in general, how your proposed research would lead to a ement over the original studies, and how it would benefit the field.