Discuss teenage pregnancy

Wikipedia, the free to: navigation, advertisement warning against teenage pregnancy, showing a pregnant e pregnancies, per 1000 adolescents (15-19). A teenage female can be pregnant as early as age twelve or thirteen, although it is usually fourteen and older. These are related to the specific situation of the teenager, and the group that she interacts with. The rates of teenage pregnancy vary from country to country and are related to differences of sexual activities, the general sex education being provided and contraceptives being available. Pregnancies have a number of problems:There is a higher risk that babies born from teenage mothers are born too early, or that they have a low weight at birth. Teenage mothers are less likely to receive prenatal care, often seeking it in the third trimester, if at all. 9] the world health organization estimates that the risk of death following pregnancy is twice as high for women between 15 and 19 years than for those between the ages of 20 and 24. Illegal abortion also holds many risks for teenage girls in areas such as sub-saharan africa. It is important that teenage mothers can rely on the family and the state to help them cope, and educate their child. Teenage parents who can rely on family and community support, social services and child-care support are more likely to continue their education and get higher paying jobs as they progress with their education. Open discussion about sex in a safe, nonjudgmental environment is essential to helping minors make educated decisions about sex. 14] pediatricians also take it upon themselves to make up for the information that has not been properly communicated to teens, and continually recognize better education as the key to helping reduce teen pregnancy. Not just another single issue: teen pregnancy prevention's link to other critical social issuespdf (147 kb). Over 1100 teenagers, mostly aged 18 or 19,[1] give birth every day in the united fication and external e pregnancy, also known as adolescent pregnancy, is pregnancy in females under the age of 20.

There are, however, additional concerns for those under 15 of age as they are less likely to be physically developed enough to sustain a healthy pregnancy or to give birth. Developed countries, teenage pregnancies are associated with social issues, including lower educational levels, poverty, and other negative life outcomes in children of teenage mothers. Teenage pregnancy in developed countries is usually outside of marriage, and carries a social stigma in many communities and cultures. 9] by contrast, teenage parents in developing countries are often married, and their pregnancies welcomed by family and society. However, in these societies, early pregnancy may combine with malnutrition and poor health care to cause medical used in combination, educational interventions and promotion of birth control can reduce the risk of unintended teenage pregnancies. Society and age of the mother is determined by the easily verified date when the pregnancy ends, not by the estimated date of conception. 12] similarly, statistics on the mother's marital status are determined by whether she is married at the end of the pregnancy, not at the time of ing to the united nations population fund (unfpa), “pregnancies among girls less than 18 years of age have irreparable consequences. 13] health consequences include not yet being physically ready for pregnancy and childbirth leading to complications and malnutrition as the majority of adolescents tend to come from lower-income households. 13] teenage pregnancy also affects girls’ education and income potential as many are forced to drop out of school which ultimately threatens future opportunities and economic prospects. Studies have examined the socioeconomic, medical, and psychological impact of pregnancy and parenthood in teens. Life outcomes for teenage mothers and their children vary; other factors, such as poverty or social support, may be more important than the age of the mother at the birth. This means not focusing on changing the behaviour of girls but addressing the underlying reasons of adolescent pregnancy such as poverty, gender inequality, social pressures and coercion. Teenage pregnancy puts young woman at risk for health issues, economic, social and financial issues. United states and united kingdom had some of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the developed a young mother in a first world country can affect one's education.

17] however, recent studies have found that many of these mothers had already dropped out of school before becoming pregnant, but those in school at the time of their pregnancy were as likely to graduate as their peers. Less than one third of teenage mothers receive any form of child support, vastly increasing the likelihood of turning to the government for assistance. 17] one study found that, in 1988, 60% of teenage mothers were impoverished at the time of giving birth. 17] a study of 100 teenaged mothers in the united kingdom found that only 11% received a salary, while the remaining 89% were unemployed. 22] most british teenage mothers live in poverty, with nearly half in the bottom fifth of the income distribution. 23] teenage women who are pregnant or mothers are seven times more likely to commit suicide than other teenagers. 24] professor john ermisch at the institute of social and economic research at essex university and dr roger ingham, director of the centre of sexual health at southampton university – found that comparing teenage mothers with other girls with similarly deprived social-economic profiles, bad school experiences and low educational aspirations, the difference in their respective life chances was negligible. To the national campaign to prevent teen pregnancy, nearly 1 in 4 teen mothers will experience another pregnancy within two years of having their first. 27] pregnancy and giving birth significantly increases the chance that these mothers will become high school dropouts and as many as half have to go on welfare. Academic performance in the children of teenage mothers has also been noted, with many of the children being held back a grade level, scoring lower on standardized tests, and/or failing to graduate from secondary school. 17][34] sons born to teenage mothers are three times more likely to serve time in prison. 6][17][36] in a rural hospital in west bengal, teenage mothers between 15 and 19 years old were more likely to have anemia, preterm delivery, and a baby with a lower birth weight than mothers between 20 and 24 years old. Many of the health-issues associated with teenage mothers appear to result from lack of access to adequate medical care. 41][42] complications of pregnancy result in the deaths of an estimated 70,000 teen girls in developing countries each year.

5] the world health organization estimates that the risk of death following pregnancy is twice as high for women aged 15–19 than for those aged 20–24. Of teenage pregnancies are higher in societies where it is traditional for girls to marry young and where they are encouraged to bear children as soon as they are able. For example, in some sub-saharan african countries, early pregnancy is often seen as a blessing because it is proof of the young woman's fertility. In the indian subcontinent, early marriage and pregnancy is more common in traditional rural communities than in cities. 44] the lack of education on safe sex, whether it is from parents, schools, or otherwise, is a cause of teenage pregnancy. Many teenagers are not taught about methods of birth control and how to deal with peers who pressure them into having sex before they are ready. Societies where adolescent marriage is less common, such as many developed countries, young age at first intercourse and lack of use of contraceptive methods (or their inconsistent and/or incorrect use; the use of a method with a high failure rate is also a problem) may be factors in teen pregnancy. Countries with low levels of teenagers giving birth accept sexual relationships among teenagers and provide comprehensive and balanced information about sexuality. 51] if the younger sisters of teenage parents babysit the children, they have an increased risk of getting pregnant themselves. 53] the probability of the younger sister having a teenage pregnancy went from one in five to two in five if the elder sister had a baby as a teenager. A 2005 kaiser family foundation study of us teenagers, 29% of teens reported feeling pressure to have sex, 33% of sexually active teens reported "being in a relationship where they felt things were moving too fast sexually", and 24% had "done something sexual they didn’t really want to do". 57][58] the increased sexual activity among adolescents is manifested in increased teenage pregnancies and an increase in sexually transmitted of drug and alcohol use[edit]. If so, it is unknown if the drugs themselves directly influence teenagers to engage in riskier behavior, or whether teenagers who engage in drug use are more likely to engage in sex. The drugs with the strongest evidence linking them to teenage pregnancy are alcohol, cannabis, "ecstasy" and other substituted amphetamines.

The drugs with the least evidence to support a link to early pregnancy are opioids, such as heroin, morphine, and oxycodone, of which a well-known effect is the significant reduction of libido – it appears that teenage opioid users have significantly reduced rates of conception compared to their non-using, and alcohol, "ecstasy", cannabis, and amphetamine using peers. Article: precocious who mature early are more likely to engage in sexual intercourse at a younger age, which in turn puts them at greater risk of teenage pregnancy. Article: birth cents may lack knowledge of, or access to, conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be too embarrassed or frightened to seek such information. In 1998, the government of the united kingdom set a target to halve the under-18 pregnancy rate by 2010. The united states, according to the 2002 national surveys of family growth, sexually active adolescent women wishing to avoid pregnancy were less likely than older women to use contraceptives (18% of 15–19-year-olds used no contraceptives, versus 10. A study for the guttmacher institute, researchers found that from a comparative perspective, however, teenage pregnancy rates in the united states are less nuanced than one might initially assume. Rates arise primarily because of less, and possibly less-effective, contraceptive use by sexually active teenagers. 59] long-acting contraceptives such as intrauterine devices, subcutaneous contraceptive implants, and contraceptive injections (such as depo-provera and combined injectable contraceptive), which prevent pregnancy for months or years at a time, are more effective in women who have trouble remembering to take pills or using barrier methods ing to the encyclopedia of women's health, published in 2004, there has been an increased effort to provide contraception to adolescents via family planning services and school-based health, such as hiv prevention education. Also: sexual s from south africa have found that 11–20% of pregnancies in teenagers are a direct result of rape, while about 60% of teenage mothers had unwanted sexual experiences preceding their pregnancy. Studies have indicated a strong link between early childhood sexual abuse and subsequent teenage pregnancy in industrialized countries. 75][75][76] they have also reported that knowledge of their pregnancy has often intensified violent and controlling behaviors on part of their boyfriends. A washington state study found 70% of teenage mothers had been beaten by their boyfriends, 51% had experienced attempts of birth control sabotage within the last year, and 21% experienced school or work a study of 379 pregnant or parenting teens and 95 teenage girls without children, 62% of girls aged 11–15 and 56% of girls aged 16–19 reported experiencing domestic violence at the hands of their partners. Frontispiece illustration from street arabs and gutter snipes by george carter needham, boston, e pregnancy has been defined predominantly within the research field and among social agencies as a social problem. 59] economically poor countries such as niger and bangladesh have far more teenage mothers compared with economically rich countries such as switzerland and japan.

79] for example, in italy, the teenage birth rate in the well-off central regions is only 3. Is little evidence to support the common belief that teenage mothers become pregnant to get benefits, welfare, and council housing. Exposed to abuse, domestic violence, and family strife in childhood are more likely to become pregnant as teenagers, and the risk of becoming pregnant as a teenager increases with the number of adverse childhood experiences. 82] according to a 2004 study, one-third of teenage pregnancies could be prevented by eliminating exposure to abuse, violence, and family strife. Have also found that girls whose fathers left the family early in their lives had the highest rates of early sexual activity and adolescent pregnancy. Even when the researchers took into account other factors that could have contributed to early sexual activity and pregnancy, such as behavioral problems and life adversity, early father-absent girls were still about five times more likely in the united states and three times more likely in new zealand to become pregnant as adolescents than were father-present girls. 87] a girl is also more likely to become a teenage parent if her mother or older sister gave birth in her teens. 34][52] a majority of respondents in a 1988 joint center for political and economic studies survey attributed the occurrence of adolescent pregnancy to a breakdown of communication between parents and child and also to inadequate parental supervision. Dutch approach to preventing teenage pregnancy has often been seen as a model by other countries. 94] it has been found to be ineffective in decreasing hiv risk in the developed world,[95] and does not decrease rates of unplanned pregnancy when compared to comprehensive sex education. 97] studies indicate that, internationally, success in reducing teen pregnancy rates is directly correlated with the kind of access that title x provides: “what appears crucial to success is that adolescents know where they can go to obtain information and services, can get there easily and are assured of receiving confidential, nonjudgmental care, and that these services and contraceptive supplies are free or cost very little. Department of health and human services approved $155 million in new funding for comprehensive sex education programs designed to prevent teenage pregnancy. These grants will support the replication of teen pregnancy prevention programs that have been shown to be effective through rigorous research as well as the testing of new, innovative approaches to combating teen pregnancy. 98] of the total of $150 million, $55 million is funded by affordable care act through the personal responsibility education program, which requires states receiving funding to incorporate lessons about both abstinence and the developing world, programs of reproductive health aimed at teenagers are often small scale and not centrally coordinated, although some countries such as sri lanka have a systematic policy framework for teaching about sex within schools.

Team of researchers and educators in california have published a list of "best practices" in the prevention of teen pregnancy, which includes, in addition to the previously mentioned concepts, working to "instill a belief in a successful future", male involvement in the prevention process, and designing interventions that are culturally relevant. Reporting teenage pregnancy rates, the number of pregnancies per 1,000 females aged 15 to 19 when the pregnancy ends is generally used. 103] among oecd developed countries, the united states, united kingdom and new zealand have the highest level of teenage pregnancy, while japan and south korea have the lowest in 2001. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth are the leading cause of mortality among women aged 15–19 in such areas. Highest rate of teenage pregnancy in the world is in sub-saharan africa, where women tend to marry at an early age. The indian subcontinent, early marriage sometimes results in adolescent pregnancy, particularly in rural regions where the rate is much higher than it is in urbanized areas. Latest data suggests that teen pregnancy in india is high with 62 pregnant teens out of every 1,000 women. 105] india is fast approaching to be the most populous country in the world, and increasing teenage pregnancy, an important factor for the population rise, is likely to aggravate the problem. However, in the industrialized asian nations such as south korea and singapore, teenage birth rates remain among the lowest in the world. Overall trend in europe since 1970 has been a decreasing total fertility rate, an increase in the age at which women experience their first birth, and a decrease in the number of births among teenagers. 111] many of the teen births occur in roma populations, who have an occurrence of teenage pregnancies well above the local average. Article: teenage pregnancy and sexual health in the united teen pregnancy rate in england and wales was 23. Historically, the uk has had one of the highest teenage pregnancy and abortion rates in western are no comparable rates for conceptions across europe, but the under-18 birth rate suggests england is closing the gap. A spokeswoman for the british pregnancy advisory service said: "contrary to popular perception, this data shows that the teenage pregnancy rate is falling dramatically in england and wales.

While the uk has historically had a high teenage conception rate, it is now at its lowest level on record and not significantly out of step with other european countries. We have seen a huge decline in the number of babies born to teenage mothers over the last decade, in part due to the improvements we've seen in contraception advice and services for younger women, with straightforward access to abortion services when their chosen method lets them down. Article: teenage pregnancy in the united teenage birth rate in the united states is the highest in the developed world, and the teenage abortion rate is also high. Teenage pregnancy rate was at a high in the 1950s and has decreased since then, although there has been an increase in births out of wedlock. 116] the teenage pregnancy rate decreased significantly in the 1990s; this decline manifested across all racial groups, although teenagers of african-american and hispanic descent retain a higher rate, in comparison to that of european-americans and asian-americans. Latest data from the united states shows that the states with the highest teenage birthrate are mississippi, new mexico and arkansas while the states with the lowest teenage birthrate are new hampshire, massachusetts and vermont. Canadian teenage birth trended towards a steady decline for both younger (15–17) and older (18–19) teens in the period between 1992 and 2002;[120] however, teen pregnancy has been on the rise since 2013. The conception may occur within wedlock, or the pregnancy itself may precipitate the marriage (the so-called shotgun wedding). And the ireland, the majority of teenage mothers are not married to the father of their children. 47][122] in the uk, half of all teenagers with children are lone parents, 40% are cohabitating as a couple and 10% are married. 123] teenage parents are frequently in a romantic relationship at the time of birth, but many adolescent fathers do not stay with the mother and this often disrupts their relationship with the child. Studies by the population reference bureau and the national center for health statistics found that about two-thirds of births to teenage girls in the united states are fathered by adult men aged over 20. Pregnancy was normal in previous centuries, and common in developed countries in the 20th century. Among norwegian women born in the early 1950s, nearly a quarter became teenage mothers by the early 1970s.

Among those born in norway in the late 1970s, less than 10% became teenage mothers, and rates have fallen since then. Bobby darin was born to a teenage mother in 1936, whom he believed to be his sister for most of his life, until she revealed to him as being his actual mother in his adult life. Palin, 18, the teenage daughter of john mccain's 2008 vice presidential candidate former[163] alaskan governor sarah palin, gave birth on december 27, 2008 to a son named tripp. Politicians condemn pregnancy in unmarried teenagers as a drain on taxpayers, if the mothers and children receive welfare payments from the government. Teenage pregnancies, births and abortions: national and state trends and trends by race and ethnicity" (pdf). Please note that in these tables, "age" refers to the woman’s age when the pregnancy ended. Consequently, actual numbers of pregnancies that occurred among teenagers are higher than those reported here, because most of the women who conceived at age 19 had their births or abortions after they turned 20 and, thus, were not counted as teenagers. Not just another single issue: teen pregnancy prevention's link to other critical social issues" (pdf). A b beginning too soon: adolescent sexual behavior, pregnancy and parenthood, us department of health and human services. A b teenage mothers : decisions and outcomes – provides a unique review of how teenage mothers think policy studies institute, university of westminster, 30 oct 1998. Impact of adolescent childbearing on families and younger sibling: effects that increase younger siblings' risk for early pregnancy". I just let him have his way" partner violence in the lives of low-income, teenage mothers". Teenage conceptions by small area deprivation in england and wales 2001-2" (spring 2007)health statistics quarterly volume 33. In 2004 despite drop in teen birth, pregnancy rates, report says archived 2011-05-12 at the wayback machine..

2004) teenage pregnancy risk rises with childhood exposure to family strife archived 2007-11-04 at the wayback machine. Does father absence place daughters at special risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy? Quigley, ann (2003) father's absence increases daughter's risk of teen pregnancy health behavior news service, may 27, 2003. Kb) a joint project of the national campaign to prevent teen pregnancy and ucan (uhlich children’s advantage network) 16 feb 2006. Why teen pregnancy is on the rise again in canada (and spiking in these provinces)". Welfare queens" and "teen moms": how the social construction of fertile women impacts unintended pregnancy prevention policy in the united states". Isbn y resources ces in your ces in other pregnancy at pregnancy prevention at e pregnancies and obstetric pregnancy, a special issue from the journal of applied research on children (2011). Teenage pregnancyadolescenceadolescent sexualityyouthmotherhoodpediatric gynecologyhidden categories: webarchive template wayback linkswikipedia articles needing clarification from may 2011cs1 maint: bot: original-url status unknowncs1 maint: multiple names: authors listall articles with unsourced statementsarticles with unsourced statements from november 2015articles with unsourced statements from august 2014articles with dmoz logged intalkcontributionscreate accountlog pagecontentsfeatured contentcurrent eventsrandom articledonate to wikipediawikipedia out wikipediacommunity portalrecent changescontact links hererelated changesupload filespecial pagespermanent linkpage informationwikidata itemcite this a bookdownload as pdfprintable version. A non-profit ncy and what to e pregnancy is defined as an unintended pregnancy during adolescence. Approximately 750,000 of 15- to 19-year-olds become pregnant each year, according to the american college of obstetricians and gynecologists, though many teenagers do not believe that they will get pregnant if they engage in sexual adolescence, teenagers often feel pressure to make friends and fit in with their peers. Teenagers have sex as a way to appear cool and sophisticated, but in some cases the end result is an unplanned teen pregnancy. Many parents have busy lives that prevent them from providing the guidance and support that their young teenagers need to make good decisions on issues such as sex, according to the website parent dish. When a teen does not feel that she can talk to her parents about sex either because they forbid sex talk or because they are not around, she will more than likely turn to friends for direction on whether or not to have sex, resulting in misinformation and possible teen movie industry and the media contribute to teenage pregnancy by glamorizing teen pregnancy in news stories and movies. Movies that depict teen pregnancy as something to be desired encourage teens to engage in reckless sexual activity, according to abc's "good morning america.

They want to be seen as part of the group, so if teen pregnancy is viewed as acceptable in their school or amongst their friends, they may seek to become pregnant as a way to gain social ers who are uneducated about sex are more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. Approximately 5 percent of all teen births are the result of a drinking can cause an unexpected pregnancy, according to the website love to know. Pounds per 2 pounds per e signs of antages of teenage are the risks of teenage pregnancy? In adolescent problems faced by teen of preventing teenage of safe fish to eat while it safe to use steam therapy when pregnant? Eating strategies/caloric e signs of antages of teenage are the risks of teenage pregnancy? The pregnant teenager actually represents three patients: the mother, the baby, and the adolescent herself. Sex education can be improved through the advocacy of pediatricians, who can discuss postponing parenthood until the end of adolescence with many of their patients. The entire problem must be viewed in the context of current social patterns, an understanding of adolescent development, the significance of peer pressures, and the biological changes that make it possible for children to bear : this discussion of teenage pregnancy focuses on the following: the scope of the problem; identification of the pregnant teenager; causes of teenage pregnancy (biologic factors, the role of peers, societal influences, and contraception); the teenage father; complications of pregnancy; nutrition in teenage pregnancy (protein requirements, vitamins, minerals, and trace minerals); the options for a pregnant teenager; and prevention. Teenage pregnancy is not a new problem, yet in the last 20 years several factors have influenced the awareness of the problem and its consequences. Furstenberg identifies several reasons for increased attention devoted to teen pregnancy: an increase in the teenage population; more awareness of population control; more liberal teenage sexual behavior, coupled with a disdain for early marriage, and resulting in increased illegitimate birth; and governmental concern regarding socioeconomic conditions vis-a-vis teenage parenthood and poor educational, vocational, and social stability. Experience shows that the pregnant teenager is unlikely to have completed growth tasks, particularly the acquisition of independent thinking and a mature understanding of self. Repeatedly, teenagers encountered in practice, clinics, and an outreach educational project have reported that peer pressure is their single greatest motivator in regard to sexual behavior. The potential teenage father needs to be prepared by education and counseling for either appropriate delay of his role as a father or coping with its premature occurrence. It appears that with the exception of preeclampsia and a small bony pelvis in the adolescent, the majority of complications of teenage pregnancy are more a function of lack of prenatal care than they are of maternal age.

Factors related to nutrition that place the adolescent at risk during pregnancy include low prepregnancy weight, insufficient weight gain, obesity, existing medical complications, dietary faddism, pica, and low income or ethnic : 7041565 [indexed for medline] sharepublication type, mesh terms, substancespublication typereviewmesh termsadolescentadolescent behavioradultchilddietary proteins/metabolismfamily planning servicesfathers/psychologyfemalehumansinfant, newbornmaleminerals/metabolismnutritional physiological phenomenaobstetric labor, premature/epidemiologypeer grouppregnancypregnancy complications/epidemiologypregnancy in adolescence*psychology, adolescentself conceptsexual behaviorsocial valuesunited statesvitamins/metabolismsubstancesdietary proteinsmineralsvitaminslinkout - more resourcesmedicalpregnancy - genetic allianceteenage pregnancy - medlineplus health informationpubmed commons home. Commentshow to join pubmed commonshow to cite this comment:Ncbi > literature > topics by , joints & ical & kidney /nutrition & all topics bladder to 54% of people with symptoms of bladder control problems haven't talked to their y living pregnancy pregnancy, consequences of teenage pregnancy & birth pregnancy pregnancy & sex education for pregnancy & health risks to the pregnancy, consequences of teenage pregnancy pregnancy is an important issue for several reasons. For example, there are health risks for the baby and children born to teenage mothers are more likely to suffer health, social, and emotional problems than children born to older mothers. 1990, pregnancy rates in teenage girls aged 15 to 17 declined by almost 50 percent and pregnancy rates in older teens decreased by about 33 percent. Pregnancies in girls 15 to 17 accounted for more than one-quarter of all teen pregnancies in 2012, recent studies show that although teen pregnancies continuing to decline in the united states, rates for african american teens and hispanic teens are two to three times higher than in caucasian april 2013, the cdc reported that nearly one in five teen births is a repeat birth—meaning that it's at least the second birth for the teenage mother. Babies born as result of a repeat teen pregnancy are even more likely to be born premature—early and at a low birth ing teen pregnancy rates are thought to be attributed to more effective birth control practice, newer methods of birth control (e. Long-acting, reversible contraception), and decreased sexual activity among , teenage pregnancy rates remain high and approximately 1 million teenage girls become pregnant each year in the united states and about 13 percent of u. To lower teen pregnancy rates, older children must be educated about sex and sexuality and about the consequences of uences of teen e births are associated with lower annual income for the mother.