Hypothesis development in research
Ping the research ah1, flikkema r, toledo-pereyra information1division of abdominal transplantation, department of surgery, university of north carolina at chapel hill, usa. Types of research hypotheses include inductive and deductive, directional and non-directional, and null and alternative hypotheses. Rejecting the null hypothesis and accepting the alternative hypothesis is the basis for building a good research study. 609449 [indexed for medline] sharemesh termsmesh termsbiomedical research/methods*data interpretation, statisticalresearch design*linkout - more resourcesfull text sourcestaylor & francispubmed commons home. This page on your website:Often, one of the trickiest parts of designing and writing up any research paper is writing the article is a part of the guide:Select from one of the other courses available:Experimental ty and ical tion and psychology e projects for ophy of sance & tics beginners tical bution in er 44 more articles on this 't miss these related articles:5example of a paper 2. Entire experiment revolves around the research hypothesis (h1) and the null hypothesis (h0), so making a mistake here could ruin the whole ss to say, it can all be a little intimidating, and many students find this to be the most difficult stage of the scientific fact, it is not as difficult as it looks, and if you have followed the steps of the scientific process and found an area of research and potential research problem, then you may already have a few is just about making sure that you are asking the right questions and wording your hypothesis statements you have nailed down a promising hypothesis, the rest of the process will flow a lot more easily.. The three-step process it can quite difficult to isolate a testable hypothesis after all of the research and study. The best way is to adopt a three-step hypothesis; this will help you to narrow things down, and is the most foolproof guide to how to write a one is to think of a general hypothesis, including everything that you have observed and reviewed during the information gathering stage of any research design. This stage is often called developing the research example of how to write a hypothesis a worker on a fish-farm notices that his trout seem to have more fish lice in the summer, when the water levels are low, and wants to find out why. His research leads him to believe that the amount of oxygen is the reason - fish that are oxygen stressed tend to be more susceptible to disease and proposes a general hypothesis.
Of this articlein this article, we discuss important considerations in the development of a research question and hypothesis and in defining objectives for research. By the end of this article, the reader will be able to appreciate the significance of constructing a good research question and developing hypotheses and research objectives for the successful design of a research study. The following article is divided into 3 sections: research question, research hypothesis and research ch questioninterest in a particular topic usually begins the research process, but it is the familiarity with the subject that helps define an appropriate research question for a study. 1 the challenge in developing an appropriate research question is in determining which clinical uncertainties could or should be studied and also rationalizing the need for their sing one’s knowledge about the subject of interest can be accomplished in many ways. In addition, awareness of current trends and technological advances can assist with the development of research questions. Canadian institute for health research) encourage applicants to conduct a systematic review of the available evidence if a recent review does not already exist and preferably a pilot or feasibility study before applying for a grant for a full -depth knowledge about a subject may generate a number of questions. Additional research questions can be developed, but several basic principles should be taken into consideration. Any additional questions should never compromise the primary question because it is the primary research question that forms the basis of the hypothesis and study objectives. It must be kept in mind that within the scope of one study, the presence of a number of research questions will affect and potentially increase the complexity of both the study design and subsequent statistical analyses, not to mention the actual feasibility of answering every question. A sensible strategy is to establish a single primary research question around which to focus the study plan.
In a study, the primary research question should be clearly stated at the end of the introduction of the grant proposal, and it usually specifies the population to be studied, the intervention to be implemented and other circumstantial factors. And colleagues2 have suggested the use of the finer criteria in the development of a good research question (box 1). The finer criteria highlight useful points that may increase the chances of developing a successful research project. A good research question should specify the population of interest, be of interest to the scientific community and potentially to the public, have clinical relevance and further current knowledge in the field (and of course be compliant with the standards of ethical boards and national research standards). 1finer criteria for a good research questionffeasibleadequate number of subjectsadequate technical expertiseaffordable in time and moneymanageable in scopeiinterestinggetting the answer intrigues investigator, peers and communitynnovelconfirms, refutes or extends previous findingseethicalamenable to a study that institutional review board will approverrelevantto scientific knowledgeto clinical and health policyto future researchview it in a separate windowadapted with permission from wolters kluwer health. The finer criteria outline the important aspects of the question in general, a useful format to use in the development of a specific research question is the pico format — consider the population (p) of interest, the intervention (i) being studied, the comparison (c) group (or to what is the intervention being compared) and the outcome of interest (o). 1 the picot approach helps generate a question that aids in constructing the framework of the study and subsequently in protocol development by alluding to the inclusion and exclusion criteria and identifying the groups of patients to be included. Knowing the specific population of interest, intervention (and comparator) and outcome of interest may also help the researcher identify an appropriate outcome measurement tool. The more defined the population of interest, and thus the more stringent the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the greater the effect on the interpretation and subsequent applicability and generalizability of the research findings. Is the appropriate follow-up time to assess outcomeview it in a separate windowa poorly devised research question may affect the choice of study design, potentially lead to futile situations and, thus, hamper the chance of determining anything of clinical significance, which will then affect the potential for publication.
Without devoting appropriate resources to developing the research question, the quality of the study and subsequent results may be compromised. During the initial stages of any research study, it is therefore imperative to formulate a research question that is both clinically relevant and ch hypothesisthe primary research question should be driven by the hypothesis rather than the data. 2 that is, the research question and hypothesis should be developed before the start of the study. Therefore, a good hypothesis must be based on a good research question at the start of a trial and, indeed, drive data collection for the research or clinical hypothesis is developed from the research question and then the main elements of the study — sampling strategy, intervention (if applicable), comparison and outcome variables — are summarized in a form that establishes the basis for testing, statistical and ultimately clinical significance. For example, in a research study comparing computer-assisted acetabular component insertion versus freehand acetabular component placement in patients in need of total hip arthroplasty, the experimental group would be computer-assisted insertion and the control/conventional group would be free-hand placement. The purpose of hypothesis testing is to make an inference about the population of interest on the basis of a random sample taken from that population. The null hypothesis for the preceding research hypothesis then would be that there is no difference in mean functional outcome between the computer-assisted insertion and free-hand placement techniques. After forming the null hypothesis, the researchers would form an alternate hypothesis stating the nature of the difference, if it should appear. The alternate hypothesis would be that there is a difference in mean functional outcome between these techniques. There is no difference in functional outcome between the groups in a statistical sense), we cannot reject the null hypothesis, whereas if the findings were significant, we can reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternate hypothesis (i.
In other words, hypothesis testing confirms or refutes the statement that the observed findings did not occur by chance alone but rather occurred because there was a true difference in outcomes between these surgical procedures. The concept of statistical hypothesis testing is complex, and the details are beyond the scope of this r important concept inherent in hypothesis testing is whether the hypotheses will be 1-sided or 2-sided. A 2-sided hypothesis states that there is a difference between the experimental group and the control group, but it does not specify in advance the expected direction of the difference. A 2-sided hypothesis should be used unless there is a good justification for using a 1-sided hypothesis. As bland and atlman 8 stated, “one-sided hypothesis testing should never be used as a device to make a conventionally nonsignificant difference significant. The research hypothesis should be stated at the beginning of the study to guide the objectives for research. Whereas the investigators may state the hypothesis as being 1-sided (there is an improvement with treatment), the study and investigators must adhere to the concept of clinical equipoise. A research hypothesis is supported by a good research question and will influence the type of research design for the study. Acting on the principles of appropriate hypothesis development, the study can then confidently proceed to the development of the research ch objectivethe primary objective should be coupled with the hypothesis of the study. Study objectives define the specific aims of the study and should be clearly stated in the introduction of the research protocol.
From our previous example and using the investigative hypothesis that there is a difference in functional outcomes between computer-assisted acetabular component placement and free-hand placement, the primary objective can be stated as follows: this study will compare the functional outcomes of computer-assisted acetabular component insertion versus free-hand placement in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Note that the study objective is an active statement about how the study is going to answer the specific research question. They are important because they not only help guide the development of the protocol and design of study but also play a role in sample size calculations and determining the power of the study. 7 it is the precise objective and what the investigator is trying to measure that is of clinical relevance in the practical following is an example from the literature about the relation between the research question, hypothesis and study objectives:study: warden sj, metcalf br, kiss zs, et al. Hypothesis: pain levels are reduced in patients who receive daily active-lipus (treatment) for 12 weeks compared with individuals who receive inactive-lipus (placebo). To investigate the clinical efficacy of lipus in the management of patellar tendinopathy sionthe development of the research question is the most important aspect of a research project. A research project can fail if the objectives and hypothesis are poorly focused and underdeveloped. Designing and developing an appropriate and relevant research question, hypothesis and objectives can be a difficult task. The critical appraisal of the research question used in a study is vital to the application of the findings to clinical practice. Focusing resources, time and dedication to these 3 very important tasks will help to guide a successful research project, influence interpretation of the results and affect future publication 3tips for developing research questions, hypotheses and objectives for research studiesperform a systematic literature review (if one has not been done) to increase knowledge and familiarity with the topic and to assist with research about current trends and technological advances on the careful input from experts, mentors, colleagues and collaborators to refine your research question as this will aid in developing the research question and guide the research the finer criteria in the development of the research that the research question follows picot p a research hypothesis from the research p clear and well-defined primary and secondary (if needed) that the research question and objectives are answerable, feasible and clinically = feasible, interesting, novel, ethical, relevant; picot = population (patients), intervention (for intervention studies only), comparison group, outcome of interest, tescompeting interests: no funding was received in preparation of this paper.
Pubmed]articles from canadian journal of surgery are provided here courtesy of canadian medical s:article | pubreader | epub (beta) | pdf (147k) | us: 727-442-4290blogabout | academic solutions | academic research resources | dissertation consulting | dissertation consulting services | research question and hypothesis ch question and hypothesis selecting your dissertation topic, you need to nail down your research questions. Importantly, whether your study utilizes a quantitative or qualitative approach, research questions need to be at least two things: interesting and researchable. Now, your committee will likely view your research questions as interesting if your questions underscore a well-defined problem that has a high level of significance to it such that examining the problem will contribute to the field in some novel way. Additionally, you will know your questions are researchable if you can confirm that the data are readily available to you, that the constructs can be operationalized into variables, and that the topic is manageable in size. The examples below provide additional context around quantitative and qualitative research tative research question e you want to examine whether a given social environment influences people’s personalities. This idea presents an interesting problem because both social environment and an individual’s personality represent constructs that researchers can easily measure by investigating any number of distinct components. Similarly, researchers can measure personalities in a multitude of ways using one of many approved course, in addition to identifying the variables that define a construct, how your variables of interest relate to each other should be explained, typically by predicting outcomes or showing differences between groups. For example, a research question and the relevant hypotheses using the previously identified variables and constructs could be:Research question – are there differences in extroversion, as measured by introversion-extroversion scores, by birth order (i. All others) such that first-born children have significantly higher extroversion scores than all other birth-order ative research question ative research in the social sciences usually takes the form of phenomenological, grounded theory, or case study research. Using the constructs in the example above, perhaps the researcher would ask participants what it was like growing up as the first-born child or not, whether they consider themselves introverted or extraverted, and what role their birth order may have played in developing this trait.
An example of a qualitative research question is as follows (typically qualitative research only has research questions and does not create formal hypotheses):Research question – what is the lived experience of an extravert and the role that being first born may have played in that trait? Some dissertations will require several research questions, a great place to start the process begins with selecting a topic and starting to articulate the variables and constructs because these inputs will form the basis behind your research questions. As always, if you would like our help forming research questions or hypotheses, call us and we’d be more than happy to plan out a path forward with you!