## Methods of data analysis in research methodology

A research g the proposal - data your research proposal, you will also discuss how you will conduct an analysis of your data. By the time you get to the analysis of your data, most of the really difficult work has been done. It's much more difficult to define the research problem, develop and implement a sampling plan, develop a design structure, and determine your measures. If you have done this work well, the analysis of the data is usually a fairly straightforward you look at the various ways of analyzing and discussing data, you need to review the differences between qualitative research/quantitative research and qualitative data/quantitative do i have to analyze data? The analysis, regardless of whether the data is qualitative or quantitative, may:Describe and summarize the fy relationships between fy the difference between r, you distinguished between qualitative and quantitative research. It is highly unlikely that your research will be purely one or the other – it will probably be a mixture of the two example, you may have decided to ethnographic research, which is qualitative. In your first step, you may have taken a small sample (normally associated with qualitative research) but then conducted a structured interview or used a questionnaire (normally associated with quantitative research) to determine people’s attitudes to a particular phenomenon (qualitative research). Source of confusion for many people is the belief that qualitative research generates just qualitative data (text, words, opinions, etc) and that quantitative research generates just quantitative data (numbers). Sometimes this is the case, but both types of data can be generated by each approach. For instance, a questionnaire (quantitative research) will often gather factual information like age, salary, length of service (quantitative data) – but may also collect opinions and attitudes (qualitative data). It comes to data analysis, some believe that statistical techniques are only applicable for quantitative data. There are many statistical techniques that can be applied to qualitative data, such as ratings scales, that has been generated by a quantitative research approach. Even if a qualitative study uses no quantitative data, there are many ways of analyzing qualitative data. For example, having conducted an interview, transcription and organization of data are the first stages of analysis. Manchester metropolitan university (department of information and communications) and learn higher offer a clear introductory tutorial to qualitative and quantitative data analysis through their analyze this!!! In additional to teaching about strategies for both approaches to data analysis, the tutorial is peppered with short quizzes to test your understanding. The site also links out to further te this tutorial and use your new knowledge to complete your planning guide for your data are many computer- and technology-related resources available to assist you in your data general ing research (lots of examples of studies, and lots of good background, especially for qualitative studies). Data tative data analysis rice virtual lab in statistics also houses an online textbook, hyperstat. The site also includes a really useful section of case studies, which use real life examples to illustrate various statistical sure which statistical test to use with your data?

# Statistical analysis of data in research methodology

The diagram is housed within another good introduction to data statistical analysis and data management computer-aided qualitative data analysis are many computer packages that can support your qualitative data analysis. The following site offers a comprehensive overview of many of them: online r package that allows you analyze textual, graphical, audio and video data. No free demo, but there is a student has add-ons which allow you to analyze vocabulary and carry out content analysis. Use these questions and explanations for ideas as you complete your planning guide for this common worries amongst researchers are:Will the research i’ve done stand up to outside scrutiny? Questions are addressed by researchers by assessing the data collection method (the research instrument) for its reliability and its ility is the extent to which the same finding will be obtained if the research was repeated at another time by another researcher. The following questions are typical of those asked to assess validity issues:Has the researcher gained full access to the knowledge and meanings of data? Procedure is perfectly reliable, but if a data collection procedure is unreliable then it is also invalid. The other problem is that even if it is reliable, then that does not mean it is necessarily ulation is crosschecking of data using multiple data sources or using two or more methods of data collection. There are different types of triangulation, including:Time triangulation – longitudinal ological triangulation – same method at different times or different methods on same object of igator triangulation – uses more than one ng error is a measure of the difference between the sample results and the population parameters being measured. The many sources of non-sampling errors include the following:Researcher error – unclear definitions; reliability and validity issues; data analysis problems, for example, missing iewer error – general approach; personal interview techniques; recording dent error – inability to answer; unwilling; cheating; not available; low response section was discussed in elements of the proposal, where there are many online resources, and you have reflective journal entries that will support you as you develop your ideas for reliability and validity in your planning guide. In addition this writing tutorial specifically addresses the ways in which this can be explained in your research to writing the proposal - different ology chapter of your dissertation should include discussions about the methods of data analysis. You have to explain in a brief manner how you are going to analyze the primary data you will collect employing the methods explained in this are differences between qualitative data analysis and quantitative data analysis. Data analysis is going to involve identifying common patterns within the responses and critically analyzing them in order to achieve research aims and analysis for quantitative studies, on the other hand, involves critical analysis and interpretation of figures and numbers, and attempts to find rationale behind the emergence of main findings. Comparisons of primary research findings to the findings of the literature review are critically important for both types of studies – qualitative and analysis methods in the absence of primary data collection can involve discussing common patterns, as well as, controversies within secondary data directly related to the research e-book, the ultimate guide to writing a dissertation in business studies: a step by step assistance offers practical assistance to complete a dissertation with minimum or no stress. The e-book covers all stages of writing a dissertation starting from the selection of the research area to submitting the completed version of the work before the y profiles & analysis (97). Please read the privacy information for s, data, s, data, analyses (mda) publishes research on all questions important to quantitative methods, with a special emphasis on survey methodology. Ing survey characteristics, participation, and evaluation across 186 surveys in an online opt-in panel in interviewer effects differ in real and falsified survey data: using multilevel analysis to identify interviewer al perspectives of nonresponse during a survey design hed by online issn: log anonymous usage statistics. Ing survey characteristics, participation, and evaluation across 186 surveys in an online opt-in panel in interviewer effects differ in real and falsified survey data: using multilevel analysis to identify interviewer al perspectives of nonresponse during a survey design hed by online issn: wikipedia, the free to: navigation, of a series on atory data analysis • information ctive data ptive statistics • inferential tical graphics • analysis • munzner • ben shneiderman • john w. Tukey • edward tufte • fernanda viégas • hadley ation graphic chart • bar ram • t • pareto chart • area l chart • run -and-leaf display • multiple • unk • visual sion analysis • statistical ational cal analysis · analysis · /long-range potential · lennard-jones potential · yukawa potential · morse difference · finite element · boundary e boltzmann · riemann ative particle ed particle ation · gibbs sampling · metropolis algorithm.

## Techniques of data analysis in research methodology

Body · v · ulam · von neumann · galerkin · analysis, also known as analysis of data or data analytics, is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision-making. Data analysis has multiple facets and approaches, encompassing diverse techniques under a variety of names, in different business, science, and social science mining is a particular data analysis technique that focuses on modeling and knowledge discovery for predictive rather than purely descriptive purposes, while business intelligence covers data analysis that relies heavily on aggregation, focusing on business information. 1] in statistical applications data analysis can be divided into descriptive statistics, exploratory data analysis (eda), and confirmatory data analysis (cda). Eda focuses on discovering new features in the data and cda on confirming or falsifying existing hypotheses. Predictive analytics focuses on application of statistical models for predictive forecasting or classification, while text analytics applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources, a species of unstructured data. All are varieties of data integration is a precursor to data analysis, and data analysis is closely linked to data visualization and data dissemination. Science process flowchart from "doing data science", cathy o'neil and rachel schutt, is refers to breaking a whole into its separate components for individual examination. Data analysis is a process for obtaining raw data and converting it into information useful for decision-making by users. John tukey defined data analysis in 1961 as: "procedures for analyzing data, techniques for interpreting the results of such procedures, ways of planning the gathering of data to make its analysis easier, more precise or more accurate, and all the machinery and results of (mathematical) statistics which apply to analyzing data. Data is necessary as inputs to the analysis are specified based upon the requirements of those directing the analysis or customers who will use the finished product of the analysis. The general type of entity upon which the data will be collected is referred to as an experimental unit (e. The requirements may be communicated by analysts to custodians of the data, such as information technology personnel within an organization. The data may also be collected from sensors in the environment, such as traffic cameras, satellites, recording devices, etc. Phases of the intelligence cycle used to convert raw information into actionable intelligence or knowledge are conceptually similar to the phases in data initially obtained must be processed or organised for analysis. For instance, these may involve placing data into rows and columns in a table format (i. The need for data cleaning will arise from problems in the way that data is entered and stored. Common tasks include record matching, identifying inaccuracy of data, overall quality of existing data,[5] deduplication, and column segmentation. There are several types of data cleaning that depend on the type of data such as phone numbers, email addresses, employers etc. Quantitative data methods for outlier detection can be used to get rid of likely incorrectly entered data.

Textual data spell checkers can be used to lessen the amount of mistyped words, but it is harder to tell if the words themselves are correct. Analysts may apply a variety of techniques referred to as exploratory data analysis to begin understanding the messages contained in the data. 9][10] the process of exploration may result in additional data cleaning or additional requests for data, so these activities may be iterative in nature. Descriptive statistics such as the average or median may be generated to help understand the data. Data visualization may also be used to examine the data in graphical format, to obtain additional insight regarding the messages within the data. Formulas or models called algorithms may be applied to the data to identify relationships among the variables, such as correlation or causation. In general terms, models may be developed to evaluate a particular variable in the data based on other variable(s) in the data, with some residual error depending on model accuracy (i. For example, regression analysis may be used to model whether a change in advertising (independent variable x) explains the variation in sales (dependent variable y). Analysts may attempt to build models that are descriptive of the data to simplify analysis and communicate results. Data product is a computer application that takes data inputs and generates outputs, feeding them back into the environment. An example is an application that analyzes data about customer purchasing history and recommends other purchases the customer might enjoy. Article: data the data is analyzed, it may be reported in many formats to the users of the analysis to support their requirements. Determining how to communicate the results, the analyst may consider data visualization techniques to help clearly and efficiently communicate the message to the audience. Data visualization uses information displays such as tables and charts to help communicate key messages contained in the data. Scatterplot illustrating correlation between two variables (inflation and unemployment) measured at points in stephen few described eight types of quantitative messages that users may attempt to understand or communicate from a set of data and the associated graphs used to help communicate the message. Customers specifying requirements and analysts performing the data analysis may consider these messages during the course of the -series: a single variable is captured over a period of time, such as the unemployment rate over a 10-year period. Also: problem jonathan koomey has recommended a series of best practices for understanding quantitative data. Problems into component parts by analyzing factors that led to the results, such as dupont analysis of return on equity. They may also analyze the distribution of the key variables to see how the individual values cluster around the illustration of the mece principle used for data consultants at mckinsey and company named a technique for breaking a quantitative problem down into its component parts called the mece principle.

Hypothesis testing is used when a particular hypothesis about the true state of affairs is made by the analyst and data is gathered to determine whether that state of affairs is true or false. Hypothesis testing involves considering the likelihood of type i and type ii errors, which relate to whether the data supports accepting or rejecting the sion analysis may be used when the analyst is trying to determine the extent to which independent variable x affects dependent variable y (e. This is an attempt to model or fit an equation line or curve to the data, such that y is a function of ary condition analysis (nca) may be used when the analyst is trying to determine the extent to which independent variable x allows variable y (e. Whereas (multiple) regression analysis uses additive logic where each x-variable can produce the outcome and the x's can compensate for each other (they are sufficient but not necessary), necessary condition analysis (nca) uses necessity logic, where one or more x-variables allow the outcome to exist, but may not produce it (they are necessary but not sufficient). Each single necessary condition must be present and compensation is not ical activities of data users[edit]. May have particular data points of interest within a data set, as opposed to general messaging outlined above. The taxonomy can also be organized by three poles of activities: retrieving values, finding data points, and arranging data points. Some concrete conditions on attribute values, find data cases satisfying those data cases satisfy conditions {a, b, c... Derived a set of data cases, compute an aggregate numeric representation of those data is the value of aggregation function f over a given set s of data cases? Data cases possessing an extreme value of an attribute over its range within the data are the top/bottom n data cases with respect to attribute a? A set of data cases, rank them according to some ordinal is the sorted order of a set s of data cases according to their value of attribute a? Rank the cereals by a set of data cases and an attribute of interest, find the span of values within the is the range of values of attribute a in a set s of data cases? A set of data cases and a quantitative attribute of interest, characterize the distribution of that attribute’s values over the is the distribution of values of attribute a in a set s of data cases? Any anomalies within a given set of data cases with respect to a given relationship or expectation, e. A set of data cases, find clusters of similar attribute data cases in a set s of data cases are similar in value for attributes {x, y, z, ... A set of data cases and two attributes, determine useful relationships between the values of those is the correlation between attributes x and y over a given set s of data cases? A set of data cases, find contextual relevancy of the data to the data cases in a set s of data cases are relevant to the current users' context? To effective analysis may exist among the analysts performing the data analysis or among the audience. Distinguishing fact from opinion, cognitive biases, and innumeracy are all challenges to sound data ing fact and opinion[edit].

Are entitled to your own opinion, but you are not entitled to your own patrick ive analysis requires obtaining relevant facts to answer questions, support a conclusion or formal opinion, or test hypotheses. Facts by definition are irrefutable, meaning that any person involved in the analysis should be able to agree upon them. In his book psychology of intelligence analysis, retired cia analyst richards heuer wrote that analysts should clearly delineate their assumptions and chains of inference and specify the degree and source of the uncertainty involved in the conclusions. Persons communicating the data may also be attempting to mislead or misinform, deliberately using bad numerical techniques. Analysts apply a variety of techniques to address the various quantitative messages described in the section ts may also analyze data under different assumptions or scenarios. For example, when analysts perform financial statement analysis, they will often recast the financial statements under different assumptions to help arrive at an estimate of future cash flow, which they then discount to present value based on some interest rate, to determine the valuation of the company or its stock. 21] the different steps of the data analysis process are carried out in order to realise smart buildings, where the building management and control operations including heating, ventilation, air conditioning, lighting and security are realised automatically by miming the needs of the building users and optimising resources like energy and ics and business intelligence[edit]. Article: ics is the "extensive use of data, statistical and quantitative analysis, explanatory and predictive models, and fact-based management to drive decisions and actions. It is a subset of business intelligence, which is a set of technologies and processes that use data to understand and analyze business performance. Activities of data visualization education, most educators have access to a data system for the purpose of analyzing student data. 23] these data systems present data to educators in an over-the-counter data format (embedding labels, supplemental documentation, and a help system and making key package/display and content decisions) to improve the accuracy of educators’ data analyses. Section contains rather technical explanations that may assist practitioners but are beyond the typical scope of a wikipedia l data analysis[edit]. Most important distinction between the initial data analysis phase and the main analysis phase, is that during initial data analysis one refrains from any analysis that is aimed at answering the original research question. Data quality can be assessed in several ways, using different types of analysis: frequency counts, descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, median), normality (skewness, kurtosis, frequency histograms, n: variables are compared with coding schemes of variables external to the data set, and possibly corrected if coding schemes are not for common-method choice of analyses to assess the data quality during the initial data analysis phase depends on the analyses that will be conducted in the main analysis phase. Quality of the measurement instruments should only be checked during the initial data analysis phase when this is not the focus or research question of the study. During this analysis, one inspects the variances of the items and the scales, the cronbach's α of the scales, and the change in the cronbach's alpha when an item would be deleted from a scale[27]. Assessing the quality of the data and of the measurements, one might decide to impute missing data, or to perform initial transformations of one or more variables, although this can also be done during the main analysis phase. Should check the success of the randomization procedure, for instance by checking whether background and substantive variables are equally distributed within and across the study did not need or use a randomization procedure, one should check the success of the non-random sampling, for instance by checking whether all subgroups of the population of interest are represented in possible data distortions that should be checked are:Dropout (this should be identified during the initial data analysis phase). Nonresponse (whether this is random or not should be assessed during the initial data analysis phase).

It is especially important to exactly determine the structure of the sample (and specifically the size of the subgroups) when subgroup analyses will be performed during the main analysis characteristics of the data sample can be assessed by looking at:Basic statistics of important ations and -tabulations[31]. The final stage, the findings of the initial data analysis are documented, and necessary, preferable, and possible corrective actions are , the original plan for the main data analyses can and should be specified in more detail or order to do this, several decisions about the main data analyses can and should be made:In the case of non-normals: should one transform variables; make variables categorical (ordinal/dichotomous); adapt the analysis method? The case of missing data: should one neglect or impute the missing data; which imputation technique should be used? Nonlinear systems can exhibit complex dynamic effects including bifurcations, chaos, harmonics and subharmonics that cannot be analyzed using simple linear methods. The main analysis phase analyses aimed at answering the research question are performed as well as any other relevant analysis needed to write the first draft of the research report. In an exploratory analysis no clear hypothesis is stated before analysing the data, and the data is searched for models that describe the data well. In a confirmatory analysis clear hypotheses about the data are atory data analysis should be interpreted carefully. Also, one should not follow up an exploratory analysis with a confirmatory analysis in the same dataset. An exploratory analysis is used to find ideas for a theory, but not to test that theory as well. When a model is found exploratory in a dataset, then following up that analysis with a confirmatory analysis in the same dataset could simply mean that the results of the confirmatory analysis are due to the same type 1 error that resulted in the exploratory model in the first place. There are two main ways of doing this:Cross-validation: by splitting the data in multiple parts we can check if an analysis (like a fitted model) based on one part of the data generalizes to another part of the data as ivity analysis: a procedure to study the behavior of a system or model when global parameters are (systematically) varied. A very brief list of four of the more popular methods is:General linear model: a widely used model on which various methods are based (e. A database system endorsed by the united nations development group for monitoring and analyzing human – data mining framework in java with data mining oriented visualization – the konstanz information miner, a user friendly and comprehensive data analytics – a visual programming tool featuring interactive data visualization and methods for statistical data analysis, data mining, and machine – free software for scientific data – fortran/c data analysis framework developed at cern. A programming language and software environment for statistical computing and – c++ data analysis framework developed at and pandas – python libraries for data ss ing (statistics). Presentation l signal case atory data inear subspace ay data t neighbor ear system pal component ured data analysis (statistics). Clean data in crm: the key to generate sales-ready leads and boost your revenue pool retrieved 29th july, 2016. William newman (1994) "a preliminary analysis of the products of hci research, using pro forma abstracts". How data systems & reports can either fight or propagate the data analysis error epidemic, and how educator leaders can help. Manual on presentation of data and control chart analysis, mnl 7a, isbn rs, john m.

Data analysis: an introduction, sage publications inc, isbn /sematech (2008) handbook of statistical methods,Pyzdek, t, (2003). Data analysis: testing for association isbn ries: data analysisscientific methodparticle physicscomputational fields of studyhidden categories: wikipedia articles with gnd logged intalkcontributionscreate accountlog pagecontentsfeatured contentcurrent eventsrandom articledonate to wikipediawikipedia out wikipediacommunity portalrecent changescontact links hererelated changesupload filespecial pagespermanent linkpage informationwikidata itemcite this a bookdownload as pdfprintable version.