Research paper terms
Of southern zing your social sciences research ry of research zing your social sciences research paper: glossary of research purpose of this guide is to provide advice on how to develop and organize a research paper in the social of research flaws to ndent and dependent ry of research terms. Choosing a research ing a topic ning a topic ing the timeliness of a topic idea. An oral g with g someone else's to manage group of structured group project survival g a book le book review ing collected g a field informed g a policy g a research ry of research glossary is intended to assist you in understanding commonly used terms and concepts when reading, interpreting, and evaluating scholarly research in the social sciences. Also included are general words and phrases defined within the context of how they apply to research in the social and behavioral uration -- refers to the process of adapting to another culture, particularly in reference to blending in with the majority population [e. However, acculturation also implies that both cultures add something to one another, but still remain distinct groups unto cy -- a term used in survey research to refer to the match between the target population and the ive measures -- procedures or devices used to obtain quantified descriptions of an individual's feelings, emotional states, or ate -- a total created from smaller units. As a verb, it refers to total data from smaller units into a large ity -- a research condition in which no one, including the researcher, knows the identities of research ne -- a control measurement carried out before an experimental orism -- school of psychological thought concerned with the observable, tangible, objective facts of behavior, rather than with subjective phenomena such as thoughts, emotions, or impulses. Against agreed upon "best-in-class" frames of -- a loss of balance and accuracy in the use of research methods.
It can also occur at other stages in research, such as while interviewing, in the design of questions, or in the way data are analyzed and presented. Bias means that the research findings will not be representative of, or generalizable to, a wider study -- the collection and presentation of detailed information about a particular participant or small group, frequently including data derived from the subjects hypothesis -- a statement hypothesizing that the independent variable affects the dependent variable in some relationship -- the relationship established that shows that an independent variable, and nothing else, causes a change in a dependent variable. It also establishes how much of a change is shown in the dependent ity -- the relation between cause and l tendency -- any way of describing or characterizing typical, average, or common values in some -square analysis -- a common non-parametric statistical test which compares an expected proportion or ratio to an actual proportion or -- a statement, similar to a hypothesis, which is made in response to the research question and that is affirmed with evidence based on fication -- ordering of related phenomena into categories, groups, or systems according to characteristics or r analysis -- a method of statistical analysis where data that share a common trait are grouped together. A research condition in which no one except the researcher(s) knows the identities of the participants in a study. It refers to the treatment of information that a participant has disclosed to the researcher in a relationship of trust and with the expectation that it will not be revealed to others in ways that violate the original consent agreement, unless permission is granted by the mability objectivity -- the findings of the study could be confirmed by another person conducting the same uct -- refers to any of the following: something that exists theoretically but is not directly observable; a concept developed [constructed] for describing relations among phenomena or for other research purposes; or, a theoretical definition in which concepts are defined in terms of other concepts. Constructivists believe that learning is more active and self-directed than either behaviorism or cognitive theory would t analysis -- the systematic, objective, and quantitative description of the manifest or latent content of print or nonprint t sensitivity -- awareness by a qualitative researcher of factors such as values and beliefs that influence cultural l group -- the group in an experimental design that receives either no treatment or a different treatment from the experimental group. This group can thus be compared to the experimental lled experiment -- an experimental design with two or more randomly selected groups [an experimental group and control group] in which the researcher controls or introduces the independent variable and measures the dependent variable at least two times [pre- and post-test measurements].
Used in true experiments to measure the difference of treatment between ility -- a researcher's ability to demonstrate that the object of a study is accurately identified and described based on the way in which the study was al theory -- an evaluative approach to social science research, associated with germany's neo-marxist “frankfurt school,” that aims to criticize as well as analyze society, opposing the political orthodoxy of modern communism. For example, in the variables “gender” and “academic major,” academic major is the dependent variable, meaning that your major cannot determine whether you are male or female, but your gender might indirectly lead you to favor one major over ion -- the distance between the mean and a particular data point in a given rse community -- a community of scholars and researchers in a given field who respond to and communicate to each other through published articles in the community's journals and presentations at conventions. It is the mean difference on a variable between experimental and control groups divided by the standard deviation on that variable of the pooled groups or of the control group patory research -- research is conducted on and with people from marginalized groups or communities. It is led by a researcher or research team who is either an indigenous or external insider; is interpreted within intellectual frameworks of that group; and, is conducted largely for the purpose of empowering members of that community and improving services for them. It also engages members of the community as co-constructors or validators of cal research -- the process of developing systematized knowledge gained from observations that are formulated to support insights and generalizations about the phenomena being mology -- concerns knowledge construction; asks what constitutes knowledge and how knowledge is raphy -- method to study groups and/or cultures over a period of time. The goal of this type of research is to comprehend the particular group/culture through immersion into the culture or group. Research is completed through various methods but, since the researcher is immersed within the group for an extended period of time, more detailed information is usually collected during the ancy effect -- any unconscious or conscious cues that convey to the participant in a study how the researcher wants them to respond.
Focus groups usually consist of 4-12 participants, guided by moderators to keep the discussion flowing and to collect and report the ork -- the structure and support that may be used as both the launching point and the on-going guidelines for investigating a research lizability -- the extent to which research findings and conclusions conducted on a specific study to groups or situations can be applied to the population at ed theory -- practice of developing other theories that emerge from observing a group. Theories are grounded in the group's observable experiences, but researchers add their own insight into why those experiences behavior -- behaviors of a group as a whole, as well as the behavior of an individual as influenced by his or her membership in a esis -- a tentative explanation based on theory to predict a causal relationship between ndent variable -- the conditions of an experiment that are systematically manipulated by the researcher. In the earlier example of "gender" and "academic major," (see dependent variable) gender is the independent dualism -- a theory or policy having primary regard for the liberty, rights, or independent actions of ive -- a form of reasoning in which a generalized conclusion is formulated from particular ive analysis -- a form of analysis based on inductive reasoning; a researcher using inductive analysis starts with answers, but formulates questions throughout the research rness -- a concept in qualitative research that refers to the degree to which a researcher has access to and an understanding of persons, places, or things within a group or community based on being a member of that group or al consistency -- the extent to which all questions or items assess the same characteristic, skill, or al validity -- the rigor with which the study was conducted [e. A life history is different from a "research story" in that it covers a longer time span, perhaps a complete life, or a significant period in a of error -- the permittable or acceptable deviation from the target or a specific value. The allowance for slight error or miscalculation or changing circumstances in a ement -- process of obtaining a numerical description of the extent to which persons, organizations, or things possess specified -analysis -- an analysis combining the results of several studies that address a set of related ology -- a theory or analysis of how research does and should s -- systematic approaches to the conduct of an operation or process. It includes steps of procedure, application of techniques, systems of reasoning or analysis, and the modes of inquiry employed by a -methods -- a research approach that uses two or more methods from both the quantitative and qualitative research categories. Investigators usually hope that the data will demonstrate some effect from the intervention, thus allowing the investigator to reject the null gy -- a discipline of philosophy that explores the science of what is, the kinds and structures of objects, properties, events, processes, and relations in every area of study -- a longitudinal study in which a group of individuals is interviewed at intervals over a period of ipant -- individuals whose physiological and/or behavioral characteristics and responses are the object of study in a research -review -- the process in which the author of a book, article, or other type of publication submits his or her work to experts in the field for critical evaluation, usually prior to publication.
This is standard procedure in publishing scholarly enology -- a qualitative research approach concerned with understanding certain group behaviors from that group's point of ophy -- critical examination of the grounds for fundamental beliefs and analysis of the basic concepts, doctrines, or practices that express such ogy -- the study of the ways in which speech sounds form systems and patterns in -- governing principles that serve as guidelines or rules for decision making and action in a given analysis -- systematic study of the nature, rationale, cost, impact, effectiveness, implications, etc. Samples are drawn from on papers -- statements of official or organizational viewpoints, often recommending a particular course of action or response to a vism -- a doctrine in the philosophy of science, positivism argues that science can only deal with observable entities known directly to experience. Observation and experiment is used to show whether the phenomena fit the tive measurement -- use of tests, inventories, or other measures to determine or estimate future events, conditions, outcomes, or pal investigator -- the scientist or scholar with primary responsibility for the design and conduct of a research ility -- the chance that a phenomenon will occur randomly. Structured sets of questions on specified subjects that are used to gather information, attitudes, or sampling -- a process used in research to draw a sample of a population strictly by chance, yielding no discernible pattern beyond chance. A representative sample allows results to be generalized from the sample to the -- degree to which research methods are scrupulously and meticulously carried out in order to recognize important influences occurring in an experimental -- the population researched in a particular study. Tests -- researchers use statistical tests to make quantitative decisions about whether a study's data indicate a significant effect from the intervention and allow the researcher to reject the null hypothesis. A theory is not as specific as a ent -- the stimulus given to a dependent samples -- method of sampling different groups of people at different points in time from the same ulation -- a multi-method or pluralistic approach, using different methods in order to focus on the research topic from different viewpoints and to produce a multi-faceted set of data.
Also used to check the validity of findings from any one of analysis -- the basic observable entity or phenomenon being analyzed by a study and for which data are collected in the form of ty -- the degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure. Scores -- scores in which the components are modified by different multipliers to reflect their relative paper -- an authoritative report that often states the position or philosophy about a social, political, or other subject, or a general explanation of an architecture, framework, or product technology written by a group of researchers. A white paper seeks to contain unbiased information and analysis regarding a business or policy problem that the researchers may be facing. To research a term term paper researching papers don't have to be , you wrote a great college admissions essay and were accepted at the university or college of your dreams. Now, you've been assigned your first term paper, and you don't know where to start! Research process is an exploratory quest, a hunt for information that can be both exciting and rewarding. So, when embarking on writing a term paper or research paper, think of yourself as a detective.
Use these keywords when searching print or electronic sources that you can use in your term ch your term paper l-purpose reference books, such as encyclopedias and fact books, provide comprehensive summaries and suggestions for sub-topics, as well as related terminology. Although these books are not generally considered suitable sources to cite in a term paper, the bibliographies they contain can be very helpful. This initial reading may help you to narrow your interest, stimulate additional questions, and focus your research. We recommend the following general resources, as they are more global in scope: the oxford companion to politics of the world, cq researcher, the political handbook of the world, the index to international public opinion, and world opinion update. This term paper researching process will keep you from getting lost or sidetracked when searching for suitable sources for your term this point, decide on the most likely sources of information—books, journal articles, newspapers, online databases, cd-rom databases, interviews, etc. The united nations and a number of other international organizations also publish proceedings and 't forget that when you locate the sources you want to use for your term paper, you should be trying to find answers to the questions you posed previously. Number these cards so you can link them to your term paper notes: this will make the references section of your report a snap to er—thoroughly peruse all the information you have gathered, making copious notes as you go.
This preliminary research should answer basic factual questions, as well as interpretive ones, and should help you to refocus. Give yourself a reasonable amount of time to absorb all the information you've g a research or term our follow-up article about writing a research paper, we explain the next steps in the term paper writing process. If you would like to learn more about essay writing, check out scribendi's course how to write an essay in five easy 've created the blueprint for a perfect paper: outlined the framework, devised a great thesis statement and located enough evidence to support your argument. Need to have my journal article, dissertation, or term paper edited and proofread, or i need help with an admissions essay or proposal. Need editing and proofreading for my white papers, reports, manuals, press releases, marketing materials, and other business documents. Term paper is a research paper written by students over an academic term, accounting for a large part of a grade. Term papers are generally intended to describe an event, a concept, or argue a point.
It is a written original work discussing a topic in detail, usually several typed pages in length, and is often due at the end of a is much overlap between the terms research paper and term paper. A term paper was originally a written assignment (usually a research based paper) that was due at the end of the "term"—either a semester or quarter, depending on which unit of measure a school used. However, not all term papers involve academic research, and not all research papers are term papers. Plagiarism in the computer papers date back to the beginning of the 19th century when print could be reproduced cheaply and written texts of all types (reports, memoranda, specifications, and scholarly articles) could be easily produced and disseminated. Moulton and holmes (2003) write that during the years from 1870 to 1900 "american education was transformed as writing became a method of discourse and research the hallmark of learning. 1991) writes that in the 1910s, "the research paper began to harden into its familiar form" adding that plagiarism and the sale of research papers both became a problem during this time. The present day an entire industry has sprung up to provide plagiarized, pre-written or custom written term papers for students of varying levels of education.
There are many websites that sell term papers of all levels of quality and writing proficiency, but are often claimed by academic institutions as seriously undermining the academic integrity of the student. And holmes, vicki l (2003) "the research paper: a historical perspective," teaching english in the two year college 30(4) p. Step-by-step ate questions/, paraphrase, ds are important words/concepts found in your research question or thesis. Quick and dirty way to pull keywords from a research question/thesis is to choose the most important nouns; all other words are keywords to search will always retrieve more results than phrases or source: producer. Using the right words will speed up the research process, while the wrong ones can bring to it to a painfully screeching the keywords you initially choose do not give good results, try others on your list, try search strategies, or ask a librarian for the chart above to document keywords related to your topic. Find keywords:Within your research question or encyclopedias used in background bibliographies found at the end of books and a thesaurus (or in word's thesaurus under the review tab). College avenue annville, pa 17003 phone: to write a research to write a research paper: identify keywords.