Environmental factors of childhood obesity
Pmcid: pmc3278864childhood obesity: a global public health crisissameera karnik and amar kanekar1masters of public health program, american public university, east stroudsburg, pa, usa1department of health studies, east stroudsburg university of pennsylvania, east stroudsburg, pa, usacorrespondence to: ass. Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly article has been cited by other articles in ctintroduction:childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The purpose of this manuscript is to address various factors influencing childhood obesity, a variety of interventions and governmental actions addressing obesity and the challenges ahead for managing this s:in order to collect materials for this review a detailed search of cinahl, medline, eric, academic search premier databases was carried out for the time period s:some of the interventions used were family based, school based, community based, play based, and hospital based. Governments along with other health care organizations are taking effective actions like policy changing and environmentally safe interventions for children to improve physical sions:in conclusion, childhood obesity can be tackled at the population level by education, prevention and sustainable interventions related to healthy nutrition practices and physical activity ds: calorie imbalance, childhood obesity, interventions, physical activity, policy changingintroductionobesity is a major public health crisis among children and adults. Childhood-related obesity is an increasing concern with respect to the health and well-being of the child. Body mass index (bmi), a measure of weight with relation to height, is not only used as an outcome measure to determine obesity but also as a useful anthropometric index for cardiovascular risk. Childhood obesity is defined as a bmi at or above 95th percentile for children of same age and sex. 4] classifications of obesity in children depend upon the body composition of the child, as it varies with respect to age and sex of the child. 4]magnitude of the problemthe prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing in developed and underdeveloped countries. 5] the development in reducing the problem of obesity and overweight is monitored nationally by using data from national health and nutrition examination survey. 6] childhood obesity prevalence among preschool children between age group of 2-5-year-old girls and boys has increased from 5. 6] the data collected for the same period shows that the adolescent (age group 12-19 years) obesity has increased from 5. 6]figure 1graphically shows the increasing trend of obesity among children and adolescent population from 1963 to 2008. 1prevalence of obesity among us children and adolescents aged 2-19, for selected years 1963-1965 through 2007-2008healthy people 2010 have ranked obesity as number one health problem showing that prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over the years. 7] increased prevalence of childhood obesity may have adverse morbidity and mortality implications in the adult life of the child. There has been increased prevalence of childhood obesity in england, especially among school children over last few decades. 9] childhood obesity is common in united kingdom and according to the health survey conducted in 2004, obesity among 2-10-year olds was 14% and among 11-15-year olds was 15%. Boolean search strategy where the key words entered for search were “factors” and “childhood obesity” “interventions” and “governmental actions” and “economic problems” in differing orders were used to extract studies for this narrative s influencing childhood obesitychildhood obesity is due to the imbalance between caloric intake of the child and the calories utilized (for growth, development, metabolism, and physical activities).
Normally the amount of calories a child consumes through food or beverages, if not used for energy activities, leads to obesity. Obesity can be multifactorial in c factorsthere are certain genetic factors which may lead to obesity in children. 10] genetic factors may influence the metabolism, by changing the body fat content and energy intake and energy expenditure. It is seen that children and teens nowadays lack the required amount of physical activity; hence the calories are not used properly and can lead to obesity. 12]it is seen that sedentary lifestyle is an important factor for obesity, as many children spend most of their time in front of television sets, play video games, and watch computers. Children are prone to sedentary lifestyle such as watching television, consuming more energy-dense foods or snacks with large portion sizes, and having reduced physical activity, giving rise to obesity. 10]environmental factorsenvironmental factors are those that surround the children and influence their food intake and physical activity. 10] these factors are seen in various settings such as at home, in school, and in the community. Health problems related to obesity are not only physical but psychological and social as well. Children feel depressed and are nervous about their obesity issue and this has a negative effect on their behavior. The complications caused due to childhood obesity are severe and could continue to affect the health of a child even in adulthood. It is essential that parents are aware of the potential risk the child is facing due to obesity and take actions to control the problem. The term ‘community’ includes the environment around children along with other factors like geographic location, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Hence, making them aware of healthy intervention programs via the community is important to reduce childhood obesity. 17] these innovative interventions can encourage children to lead a healthy ood-obesity prevention interventionspreventive programs are conducted to control obesity in children and to modify the social and behavioral aspect of developing obesity. Some of the preventive programs revolve around educating the general population about healthy nutrition and providing information about health problems caused due to childhood obesity. 15] health care professionals can advise their patients, especially parents, about healthy child nutrition, tackling health problems due to childhood obesity, and benefits of breast feeding among newborn children to prevent weight gain. 21] federal or state actions to deal with childhood obesity are directing all the food vendors to provide exact calorie readable labels on their products, mentioning calories upfront on menus, restricting advertisements of unhealthy foods, and promoting healthy food making among parents.
Children aged 7 years and younger with no secondary complications of obesity are advised weight management. Pharmacological therapy for children with obesity above the age of 12 years can include drugs like orlistat (which blocks fat from the intestine thus giving negative energy balance). 8] medical professionals are considering the benefits of bariatric surgery in extremely obese children to avoid complications of obesity in adulthood. According to a recent review about school-based interventions for obesity prevention, 17 out of 25 intervention studies were effective in reducing the body mass index. 23] some interventions targeting physical activity through physical education along with nutritional education worked in reducing obesity. 24]us governmental strategies to reduce childhood obesityaccording to the centers for disease control and prevention, identifying effective intervention strategies that can target both improvements in physical activity and providing nutritious diet to reduce childhood obesity are important. 21] interventions encouraging mothers to breastfeed their babies can be effective in reducing the risk of obesity in children. 21] the united states government is changing the health policies involving transportation, land use, education, agriculture, and economics so that it can have an important impact on healthy environment and health of people in turn reducing obesity. The first lady has also initiated an obesity prevention and control program titled ‘let's move’. Important data regarding evaluation of childhood obesity prevention schemes can be collected and can be used to make stronger and more effective strategies including policy building to reduce future childhood obesity rates. 25]conclusionschildhood obesity has become a public health crisis, not just in the united states but all over the world. Childhood obesity problem can be reduced by educating children and parents about healthy nutrition and encouraging them to be physically active. Association of the waist-to-height ratio with cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents: the three cities heart study. Centers for disease control and prevention, overweight and obesity; childhood overweight and obesity, contributing factors. Centers for disease control and prevention (2011) [last retrieved on 2011 feb 03];cdc grand rounds: childhood obesity in the united states. The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a review of interventions and programmes. Pubmed]articles from international journal of preventive medicine are provided here courtesy of wolters kluwer -- medknow s:article | pubreader | epub (beta) | printer friendly | out usour missionour history >20th anniversaryour staffour partners >past partnersour projectsconsultationresearchmedia advocacy trainingjournalist educationjoin our teamour commitment to public healthfood & activity environmentsalcohol, tobacco & other drugshealth equityviolence preventionchildren's & family healthother interestsresourcesframing 101media advocacy 101publicationseye on marketersnewsroombmsg at a glancebmsg in the newsnews › resources › publications › obesity: environmental strategies for preventing childhood ood overweight and physical inactivity have reached epidemic levels in the united states, and they are taking a terrible toll on health. Skyrocketing obesity rates are a symptom of current community norms shaped by a market-driven economy that promotes overeating and sedentary behavior.
Preventing childhood obesity must address the social and environmental factors that undermine the health of children. The last decade has seen a dramatic rise in the rate of pediatric type 2 diabetes in the united states, paralleling the rise in childhood obesity rates. Before 1992, type 2 diabetes accounted for 2-4% of all childhood diabetes cases and by 1994 the percentage of type 2 diabetes cases skyrocketed to 16%. More recent numbers estimate that up to 45% of all new childhood diabetes diagnoses are type 2 diabetes. Based on the surgeon general's (2001) assessment of the annual national cost of obesity, (including direct medical costs and costs attributed to illness, disability, and premature death), and based on population, the estimated cost of obesity in california is $14. Medical care costs associated with obesity are greater than those associated with both smoking and problem drinking (sturm, 2002). From 1979 to 1999, national costs associated with childhood obesity increased three-fold, from $35 million to $127 million (wang et al. Of the scientific literature suggests that the high prevalence of overweight and physical inactivity is caused by numerous individual, social, and environmental factors. While no single factor is the primary cause of the childhood obesity epidemic, it is the constellation of these factors that have perpetuated the rising rates of childhood obesity and diabetes. The entanglement of social, environmental, and behavioral factors present a complex challenge when identifying targeted strategies aimed at addressing the ing and advertising play a particularly significant role in shaping norms and practices, especially for children. Multitude of factors have contributed to the increase in prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes. These factors include:Physical environment: inadequate neighborhood access to health-encouraging environments, including affordable and nutritious food, and parks and other safe places to play and exercise. Inadequate access to appropriate health care is an issue that is often cited as a cause of poor health outcomes for diabetics as well as a cause of disparities in health among different diabetic y of available health care: culturally and linguistically appropriate care, respectful treatment of patients by health care providers, and sufficient appointment time to address needs and concerns improve health outcomes, but are often lacking in health care ty: certain ethnic groups are at higher risk for obesity and diabetes than others and when genetic tendencies are combined with certain social and environmental factors, these groups can be at even higher -economic status: socio-economic status impacts a number of these factors resulting in the disproportionate effects of obesity and type 2 diabetes on low-income and ethnic-specific populations. In addition, care for some ethnic populations is often provided in a culturally insensitive ng the focus from individual behavior change to policy change and community ically, methods to reduce obesity have focused on a traditional medical model of individual behavior modification and treatment. In order to address health disparities and the larger social and environmental factors that influence them, obesity prevention efforts must include public policy options as part of the solution. Foods in al education in for walking and ising and promotion of unhealthy foods to of institutional support for and sweetened potential issues that are being considered as targets for action or mobilization include:The following strategic challenges identify some of the difficult issues that are inhibiting the development of a strong consumer-based movement aimed at preventing childhood food industry cannot be demonized in the same way that the tobacco industry has been. The policy levers effecting the quality of foods produced are related to agricultural subsidies, trade agreements, environmental policies, and food labeling. The public has been slow to make the link between the obesity epidemic and an environment that is promoting unhealthy eating and an absence of physical activity.
Taxation, regulation, or restriction of industry practices appear to be less children from low-income families live in communities with few resources and many detrimental social and environmental factors (pervasive fast food outlets, little access to healthy food, no safe play and physical activity areas) that lead to childhood overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity prevention efforts will require numerous points of intervention, such as food security and food assistance programs, schools and child care settings, urban planning, public recreational facilities, and healthcare settings. Other states including arkansas, maine, and new york have also introduced and adopted statewide school level obesity prevention policies. We need a strong consumer-based movement to begin changing social norms around the causes and solutions for overweight and obesity. That is why we have formed the strategic alliance for health food and activity environments; to raise awareness about obesity prevention and to focus strategies on changing food and physical activity environments to enable everyone, especially those with the fewest resources, to practice healthy strategic alliance: promoting healthy food and activity strategic alliance is a coalition of organizations that have come together to promote healthy food and activity environments by reframing the debate on nutrition and physical activity, from primarily a matter of individual choice and lifestyle to consideration of the environment and corporate and government responsibility. With soft drinks, fast foods, and other unhealthy tinue exclusive soft drink and fast food contracts with school districts, parks and recreation departments, and other public l providers should adopt standards of practice that focus on effective patient education and counseling and minimize use of surgical or pharmaceutical treatments for childhood professionals and institutions should use their influence as health spokespeople to advocate for healthy food and physical activity environments as essential elements for good care facilities should support healthy behaviors including breastfeeding, healthy food options, and physical activity and not permit fast food chains on media stories related to obesity, nutrition and physical activity include an environmental and policy perspective as well as discussion of individual advertising to children broadcasted by television and radio the focus of obesity-related stories towards healthier eating & activity and away from weight memo was prepared by sarah samuels for the acceleration meeting, a project to accelerate policy in nutrition: building on public health successes in tobacco, alcohol, firearms, and traffic safety, held jan. The research section of improving children's academic performance, health, and quality of life: a top policy commitment in response to children's obesity and health crisis in california. Ary menucontact development: studio 678 | design: linda lawler | ©2017 berkeley media studies group, a project of the public health e-alerts in your inbox:Skip directly to directly to a to z directly to directly to page directly to site receive email updates about this page, enter your email address:Division of nutrition, physical activity, and utrient and local ood obesity causes & end on orcommunity environmentconsequences of ood obesity is a complex health issue. The causes of excess weight gain in young people are similar to those in adults, including factors such as a person’s behavior and nation’s overall increase in obesity also is influenced by a person’s community. Where people live can affect their ability to make healthy ors that influence excess weight gain include eating high-calorie, low-nutrient foods and beverages, not getting enough physical activity, sedentary activities such as watching television or other screen devices, medication use, and sleep contrast, consuming a healthy diet and being physically active can help children grow as well as maintain a healthy weight throughout childhood. Other community factors that affect diet and physical activity include the affordability of healthy food options, peer and social supports, marketing and promotion, and policies that determine how a community is uences of immediate health y during childhood can have a harmful effect on the body in a variety of ways. Obesity is also related to8-10:Psychological problems such as anxiety and self-esteem and lower self-reported quality of problems such as bullying and en who have obesity are more likely to become adults with obesity. Adult obesity is associated with increased risk of a number of serious health conditions including heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and children have obesity, their obesity and disease risk factors in adulthood are likely to be more at, harris kc, panagiotopoulos c, et al. Association of depression and health related quality of life with body composition in children and youth with obesity. Associations between obesity and comorbid mental health, developmental, and physical health conditions in a nationally representative sample of us children aged 10 to 17. Longitudinal trends in obesity in the united states from adolescence to the third decade of life. 2010;18(9):1801-– md, ryan dh, apovian cm, et al, for the american college of cardiology/american heart association task force on practice guidelines; obesity society. 2013 aha/acc/tos guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the american college of cardiology/american heart association task force on practice guidelines and the obesity society.