Literature review of obesity

Issue ibe totable of contents of contents receive news and publication updates for journal of obesity, enter your email address in the box mation email ons to this to cite this mentary material. There is a need for future studies, particularly surveillance surveys and prospective cohort studies utilizing advanced methods, to monitor trends and to comprehensively assess the factors contributing to the obesity epidemic in kuwait. Introductionobesity prevalence rates have increased worldwide in the last three decades from 1980 to 2008, reaching a prevalence of 10–14% among the world’s adult population in 2008 [1]. Even though obesity rates are higher in upper-middle income and high income countries [2], they are projected to increase rapidly in developing nations [3]. Body mass index (bmi) is the most common way of assessing obesity and is a measure of weight that adjusts for height [4] and correlates highly with body fatness [5]. Obesity has been linked to a multitude of health conditions including diabetes, hypertension, ischaemic stroke and heart disease, different types of cancers, osteoarthritis, and reproductive conditions [4]. As a result, obesity is now among the leading factors for global morbidity and mortality and causes more global deaths than underweight [6]. Growth, urbanization, and subsequent changes in lifestyle are among the factors driving the global obesity epidemic [7]. The rapid speed that the above factors advanced in countries of the gulf region since the discovery of oil in the late 1930s may have exacerbated the obesity epidemic in these countries including kuwait [8]. The state of kuwait ranks in the top 7% of countries worldwide with the highest adult obesity prevalence rates according to the international comparisons data from the who global infobase [9] and is in the top 3% of countries worldwide with the highest diabetes prevalence rates according to recent data from the international diabetes federation [10]. Alarming levels of obesity and deleterious health consequences on the population of kuwait led us to conduct a scientific review to evaluate the current state of obesity epidemiology research in kuwait. Previous studies have reviewed obesity prevalence rates and causes in arabic speaking countries [12], the middle east [13], the eastern mediterranean [14, 15], and the gulf region [16, 17]; however, none have focused exclusively on kuwait. The purpose of this review is to conduct an exhaustive search and inclusion of obesity epidemiology studies in kuwait in order to assess both research methodology and research findings.

Literature review on obesity in adults

Studies are drawn from the literature reporting on the prevalence, trends, and risk factors associated with obesity in kuwait. Methods the pubmed database was searched for articles using the keyword combination: obesity and adults and kuwait. Publications were selected initially based on title and abstract review to include studies on the epidemiology of obesity and exclude studies not directly related to this subject. For the selected publications, we then conducted a full-text review and excluded studies with self-reported instead of measured weight and height, studies with redundant/overlapping data, and review studies that did not contribute new information through a meta-analysis. Among studies with data overlap, we used the study reporting the most detailed results, and for the review studies identified during the primary search, we screened their reference list for additional each study, we retrieved information from the four study domains listed in table 1. Finally, the reference list of retrieved articles and other science literature or public databases were searched for additional articles. The last literature search was conducted on the 10th of february, 1: information extracted from each reviewed study by study domain. One hundred and four articles were identified in pubmed, and 32 articles [16, 17, 19–24, 26, 28, 30–51] remained after exclusion of nonepidemiologic studies based on title and abstract review. Of the 39 epidemiology articles identified, 4 articles [40, 48–50] could not be retrieved and a total of 17 were excluded after full-text review for the following reasons. The excluded articles included two review studies [16, 17], one letter to editor [39], one study with self-reported bmi [36], one study that reported body weight but not height [51], one study that focused on anthropometric measures other than bmi [41], and eleven studies [37, 38, 42–47, 52–54] because of data overlap or redundancy. The selection process resulted in a final total number of 18 articles remaining for a thorough review [18–35] (figure 2). 2: flow chart for articles identification and data and information retrieved from the 18 reviewed studies are outlined in table 2. In studies reviewed, there was a lag of 2–5 years for publication since the last data collection.

2: study design characteristics of adult obesity epidemiologic studies in eighteen studies reviewed used a cross-sectional study design. The remaining 11 out of the 18 studies did not report response studies reviewed used face to face interview to collect data and only one study distributed a self-reported questionnaire to participants (table 3). The types of data collected in the reviewed studies are outlined for each study in table 3 and summarized for all studies in table 4. No justification was given in the studies to explain the choice of factors included in the 3: data collection, data analysis, and results of adult obesity epidemiologic studies in 4: types of data collected in reviewed overall prevalence of obesity (men and women combined) in the studies that reported overall prevalence rates ranged from 9% to 48%. Finally, some studies additionally report a decrease in obesity rates in the very elderly (above 60 or 70 years) [18, 22]. Two studies investigated temporal changes in obesity prevalence rates and reported a significant increase between 1980 and 1993 [35] and between 1998 and 2009 [22] (table 3). About 70% of the studies examined obesity as the main outcome, whereas the remaining studies examined obesity as a risk factor for other health outcomes [20, 23, 26, 27, 30, 34] (table s1). Among the risk factors reported to be associated with obesity in these studies were sociodemographic, socio-economic, sociocultural, lifestyle, dietary, and hereditary factors. Among the studies that reported associations with health consequences, the health consequences examined and associated with obesity were health conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and osteoarthritis, and physiologic and biochemical outcomes (blood pressure, respiratory, blood lipids, and glucose measures). 5: obesity risk factors* reported in reviewed studies had local and international author affiliations for first and last author [19, 21–23] while the remaining had local affiliations for both first and last author with the most common affiliation being kuwait university. This review was restricted to the adult population in kuwait; however, there have been several informative studies on children. It was beyond the scope of this paper to review the findings on children in order to make possible a comprehensive review on existing adult prevalence rates of obesity reported in national studies ranged from 24% to 48%. Not all results from the studies reviewed may be directly comparable because of differences in sampling procedures, age groups, and the year of data collection.

Furthermore, the exhaustive literature search and the wide inclusion criteria provide a clear understanding of the current state of obesity epidemiology research in kuwait including methodology and majority of epidemiologic studies reviewed used convenience sampling. The collection of detailed factors will also encourage the use of advanced statistical software and analysis that can provide robust findings adjusted for possible confounder’s results from existing studies on the correlates of obesity provide us with an overview of the risk factors that may be important contributors to obesity in kuwait. The role of genetic susceptibility was recognized in existing studies but was only crudely assessed as family history of obesity. Advanced studies, utilizing analytic epidemiologic designs such as prospective cohort, are needed to explore the etiology of “kuwaiti” obesity in depth. In addition to the above factors, future studies may include investigation of newly emerging players in obesity such as gene-environment interactions, sleep deprivation, and developmental origins [5]. Priorities must include the design of systematic surveillance surveys to monitor trends and the design of prospective cohort studies with periodic data collections to examine obesity determinants and health consequences [5]. Nhanes consists of cross-sectional surveys carried out annually since 1999 to monitor changes in obesity, physical activity, diet, and health outcomes. Information collected from above studies has contributed to knowledge on determinants and health consequences of obesity. When focusing on metabolic consequences of obesity, which are highly prevalent in kuwait, studies must include measures of wc, shown to better predict metabolic outcomes, or combine wc measurements with blood pressure, lipid, and glucose measurements, factors that describe the metabolic syndrome. Finally, macrolevel factors including food subsidies policies in kuwait and the role of food industry need to be further ing the methodology of studies on trends, determinants and consequences of obesity is vital since results from these studies inform intervention and prevention strategies [5]. The primary factors responsible for placing kuwait in the top 15 countries with the highest obesity prevalence out of 192 countries in the world [9], remain to be elucidated and addressed in prevention campaigns. The effective control and reduction of obesity in kuwait will require a centralized campaign with policy strategies applied at multiple levels. In their recent review, thoroughly discuss examples of prevention programs implemented in other countries at the government, organization, community, and individual level [7].

Summary, we observed several studies published on the epidemiology of obesity in kuwait; these were conducted in the last fifteen years and were all cross-sectional. Given the widespread and acknowledged problem of high obesity prevalence rates in kuwait, we expect to see an increase in the number of studies in coming years. Future research studies may focus on filling the gaps identified through this review and following a comprehensive approach to understanding and resolving the obesity epidemic in ct of intereststhe authors declared that there is no conflict of ledgmentswe would like to thank professor frank hu and the reviewers for their valuable feedback and dr. Yusuf, “prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the middle east: a systematic review,” european journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation, vol. Musaiger, “overweight and obesity in eastern mediterranean region: prevalence and possible causes,” journal of obesity, vol. Popkin, “the prevalence and trends of overweight, obesity and nutrition-related non-communicable diseases in the arabian gulf states,” obesity reviews, vol. Majeed, “prevalences of overweight, obesity, hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia in the gulf: systematic review,” jrsm short reports, vol. Evidence for nutrition transition in kuwait: over-consumption of macronutrients and obesity,” public health nutrition, vol. Desapriya, “factors associated with overweight and obesity among kuwaiti men,” asia-pacific journal of public health, vol. Prakash, “secular trends and risk factors of overweight and obesity among kuwaiti adults: national nutrition surveillance system data from 1998 to 2009,” public health nutrition, vol. Duris, “comparison of obesity and its relationship to some metabolic risk factors of atherosclerosis in arabs and south asians in kuwait,” medical principles and practice, vol. Al nesef, “prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome among adult kuwaitis: results from community-based national survey,” angiology, vol. Al-kandari, “prevalence of obesity in kuwait and its relation to sociocultural variables,” obesity reviews, vol.

Akanji, “obesity indices and major components of metabolic syndrome in young adult arab subjects,” annals of nutrition and metabolism, vol. Al-asi, “overweight and obesity among kuwait oil company employees: a cross-sectional study,” occupational medicine, vol. Al-isa, “obesity among kuwait university students: an explorative study,” journal of the royal society for the promotion of health, vol. Al-isa, “body mass index and prevalence of obesity changes among kuwaitis,” european journal of clinical nutrition, vol. Al-isa, “factors associated with overweight and obesity among kuwaiti kindergarten female teachers,” nutrition and health, vol. Al-isa, “dietary and socio-economic factors associated with obesity among kuwaiti college men,” british journal of nutrition, vol. Al-isa, “factors associated with overweight and obesity among kuwaiti college women,” nutrition and health, vol. Al-isa, “changes in body mass index (bmi) and prevalence of obesity among kuwaitis 1980–1994,” international journal of obesity, vol. Al-isa, “changes in body mass index and prevalence of obesity among adult kuwaiti women attending health clinics,” annals of saudi medicine, vol. Al-isa, “temporal changes in body mass index and prevalence of obesity among kuwaiti men,” annals of nutrition and metabolism, vol. Al-isa, “prevalence of obesity among adult kuwaitis: a cross-sectional study,” international journal of obesity and related metabolic disorders, vol. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and obesity among college students in kuwait,” alexandria journal of medicine, vol. 1); 2014 s:article | pubreader | epub (beta) | pdf (286k) | use cookies to improve your experience with our and close | more ations a-z indexbrowse by  account submit manuscript register l home > archive > pediatric review > full ational journal of obesity (2006) 30, 579–589.

E flodmark1, c marcus2 and m britton31childhood obesity unit, university hospital, malmö, sweden2national childhood research center, karolinska university hospital, stockholm, sweden3swedish council on technology assessment in health care (sbu) and the department of medicine, clinical epidemiology unit, karolinska university hospital, stockholm, swedencorrespondence: dr c-e flodmark, childhood obesity unit, university hospital, malmo 20502, sweden. E-mail: rk@ived 26 june 2005; revised 9 january 2006; accepted 15 january  of pageabstractobjective: preventive measures to contain the epidemic of obesity have become a major focus of attention. This report reviews the scientific evidence for medical interventions aimed at preventing obesity during childhood and : a systematic literature review involving selection of primary research and other systematic reviews. Articles published until 2004 were added to an earlier (2002) review by the swedish council on technology assessment in health s: inclusion criteria required controlled studies with follow-up of at least 12 months and results measured as body mass index, skinfold thickness or the percentage of overweight/obesity. Children could be recruited from normal or high-risk s: combining the new data with the previous review resulted in an evaluation of 24 studies involving 25 896 children. Of these, eight reported that prevention had a statistically significant positive effect on obesity, 16 reported neutral results and none reported a negative result (sign test; p=0. Adding the studies included in five other systematic reviews yielded, in total, 15 studies with positive, 24 with neutral and none with negative results. Evidence shows that it is possible to prevent obesity in children and adolescents through limited, school-based programs that combine the promotion of healthy dietary habits and physical ds: childhood, prevention, review, of pageintroductionoverweight and obesity are growing problems in much of the world. Once present, obesity is difficult to treat, making effective preventive intervention all the more 2002, the swedish council on technology assessment in health care (sbu) published a report (in swedish) that examined the body of scientific evidence on interventions to prevent and treat obesity. At that time, the evidence was not sufficiently solid to draw reliable conclusions about the effects of prevention in either adults or has recently updated the evidence concerning the value of preventive interventions against obesity intended to include publications released between 2001 and 2004. Do the findings in the sbu review compare with those from other systematic literature reviews in recent years? Of pagemethodsliterature search and reviewa search in pubmed and the cochrane library identified literature published from 2001 to may 2004. Additional studies were found in reference lists of relevant articles, in recently published medical journals and in other review 1 - strategies used to search the literature on preventing obesity in children and table to find studies related to health economics, the nhseed (nhs economic evaluation database) and pubmed databases were searched using the search terms 'obesity' and 'overweight' in combination with 'prevent' (using various suffixes).

The search also included studies of high-risk groups, unless the participants were selected only for having the risk factor overweight/obesity. These were considered to be treatment studies and were independent reviewers (one of the authors (mona britton) and one medical student (johan skånberg)) used abstracts to initially evaluate the studies. To assess quality, the reviewers used the following criteria, which are ranked from high to low in each of study: randomized trials; studies with matched controls/ecological controls; studies with poorly defined control – report no. Pathways: a school-based, randomized controlled trial for the prevention of obesity in american indian schoolchildren. Increasing fruit and vegetable intake and decreasing fat and sugar intake in families at risk for childhood obesity. A community-based obesity prevention program for minority children: rationale and study design for hip-hop to health jr. Nutrition and physical activity program to attenuate obesity and promote physical and metabolic fitness in elementary school children. Interventions to prevent weight gain: a systematic review of psychological models and behaviour change methods. Effects of an obesity prevention program on the eating behavior of african american mothers and daughters. Effects of a controlled trial of a school-based exercise program on the obesity indexes of preschool children. Physical activity interventions in the prevention and treatment of paediatric obesity: systematic review and critical appraisal. The sbu report contained an update of 'interventions to prevent obesity' from an earlier report. Johan bring, professor and statistician from uppsala, sweden, performed the statistical of page more articles like this these links to content published by npg are automatically generatedreviewsbreast-feeding and childhood obesity???

Systematic reviewinternational journal of obesity reviewsee all 6 matches for reviewsresearchsurrogate endpoints for the treatment of venous leg ulcersjournal of investigative dermatology original articlehealth and nutrition education in primary schools of crete: follow-up changes in body mass index and overweight statuseuropean journal of clinical nutrition scientific correspondencetwo-year internet-based randomized controlled trial for weight loss in african-american girls *obesity original articlewise mind project: a school-based environmental approach for preventing weight gain in children *obesity original articlesee all 17 matches for researchmain ed article e online t editorial ts and t springer er servicessite er nature an journal of clinical ational journal of impotence l of human reviews research al practice & vascular enterology & ogy & lar cell e navigation - full textprevious | nexttable of contentsdownload pdfsend to a interactive pdf in and ef lists 124 article. A service of the national library of medicine, national institutes of ute of medicine (us) committee on prevention of obesity in children and youth; koplan jp, liverman ct, kraak vi, editors. Preventing childhood obesity: health in the detailsinstitute of medicine (us) committee on prevention of obesity in youth; koplan jp, liverman ct, kraak vi, gton (dc): national academies press (us); tshardcopy version at national academies presssearch term < prevnext >. Reviewthe committee reviewed and considered a broad array of information in its work on issues potentially involved in the prevention of obesity and overweight in children and youth. Information sources included the primary research literature in public health, medicine, allied health, psychology, sociology, education, and transportation; reports, position statements, and other resources (e. Websites) from the federal government, state governments, professional organizations, health advocacy groups, trade organizations, and international health agencies; textbooks and other scientific reviews; federal and state legislation; and news ture reviewin order to conduct a thorough review of the medical and scientific literature, the committee, institute of medicine (iom) staff, and outside consultants conducted online bibliographic searches of relevant databases (box c-1) that included medline, agricola, cinahl, cochrane database, econlit, eric, psycinfo, sociological abstracts, embase, tris, and lexisnexis. To begin the process of identifying the primary literature in this field, the iom staff at the beginning of the study conducted general bibliographic searches on topics related to prevention interventions of obesity in children and youth. To maximize retrieval, the search strategy incorporated synonymous terms on the topics of obesity, overweight, or body weight; dietary patterns (including breastfeeding); and physical activity (including exercise, recreation, physical fitness, or physical education and training). Topics of these searches included prevention of obesity in adults (primarily meta-analyses and reviews); prevention interventions focused on co-morbidities of obesity in children (i. Diabetes, hypertension); behaviorally focused interventions; and statistical information on trends in obesity and physical activity. Additional references were identified by reviewing the reference lists found in major review articles, key reports, prominent websites, and relevant textbooks. Committee members, workshop presenters, consultants, and iom staff also supplied committee maintained the reference list in a searchable database that was indexed to allow searches by keywords, staff annotations, type of literature (e. After indexing the citations, subject bibliographies were developed for the committee on topics including definition and measurement of childhood obesity and overweight; correlates and determinants (breastfeeding, dietary patterns, physical activity, television viewing, etc.

Viewcite this pageinstitute of medicine (us) committee on prevention of obesity in children and youth; koplan jp, liverman ct, kraak vi, editors. Disable glossary linksother titles in this al academies collection: reports funded by national institutes recent activityclearturn offturn onliterature review - preventing childhood obesityliterature review - preventing childhood obesityyour browsing activity is ty recording is turned recording back onsee more... Find out more about ch and ng obesity: drivers and trends - literature ment office for ng obesities: future choices. Review of the published research on obesity drivers and  and drivers of obesity: a literature review for the foresight project on report is intended to inform the foresight project on obesity in its scoping stage. It is a review of existing research on obesity, mostly of uk or us origin.