Philosophical assumptions in research

Any kind of work or study, we always bring a certain set of beliefs as well as philosophical assumptions. Qualitative researchers understand the importance of beliefs and theories that inform their work and also actively write about them in their research. John creswell in his book “qualitative inquiry and research design” describes these assumptions and frames them into interpretive frameworks so we can understand their significance to our own research. Before i get there i must first define in greater depth the problem i am trying to solve and have chosen to explore some of the theoretical methods or approaches to qualitative research to better guide my researchers undertake a qualitative study, they are in effect agreeing to its underlying philosophical assumptions, while bringing to the study their own world views that end up shaping the direction of their research. Creswell describes the following four philosophical assumptions:Ontological (the nature of reality): relates to the nature of reality and its characteristics. Researchers embrace the idea of multiple realities and report on these multiple realities by exploring multiple forms of evidence from different individuals’ perspectives and mological (how researchers know what they know): researchers try to get as close as possible to participants being studied. Subjective evidence is assembled based on individual views from research conducted in the gical (the role of values in research): researchers make their values known in the study and actively reports their values and biases as well as the value-laden nature of information gathered from the ology (the methods used in the process of research):  inductive, emerging, and shaped by the researcher’s experience in collecting and analyzing the retive retive frameworks can be considered a basic set of beliefs that guide action. The philosophical assumptions (ontology, epistemology, axiology, and methodology) are embedded within interpretive frameworks that researchers use. Creswell suggests interpretive frameworks may be social science theories (leadership, attribution, political influence and control, and many others) to frame the researcher’s theoretical lens in studies. I have summarized these in the table listing the approaches and practices for sitivismscientific, reductionism oriented, cause/effect, a priori theoriesinquiry in logically related steps; multiple perspectives from participants not single reality; rigorous data collection and analysis; use of computer constructivismthe understanding of the world in which we live and work, the development of multiple meanings, the researchers look for complexity of viewpointsresearchers ask broad general open-ended questions; focus on the 'processes' of interaction; focus on historical and cultural settings of participants; acknowledge their background shapes interpretation, 'interpret' the meanings others have about the dernism perspectivesknowledge claims in multiple perspectives such as race, gender, class and group affiliations; negative conditions revealed in presence of hierarchies, power, control, by individuals in the hierarchy and multiple meanings of language; different discourses; marginalized people that are important; meta-narratives or universals hold true of the social conditions; need to 'deconstruct' text to learn about hierarchies, oppositions and retive biography; narrative; grounded theory; tismfocuses on outcomes; 'what works' to address research problem; researchers freedom of choice of methods; many approaches to collecting & analyzing dataresearchers use multiple methods to answer questions; research is conducted that best addresses the research st theoriesfocus on women's diverse situations; subject matter focused on domination within patriarchal society; lens focused on gender; goals focused to establish collaborative relationships to place researcher within study - not objective, but need to examine researchers background to determine validity and trustworthiness of accounts; the need to report womens' voices without exploiting them; the need to use methods in self-disclosing & respectful al theoryfocus concerned with empowering people to transcend constraints placed on them by race, class, and power; interpret or illuminate social action; themes include scientific study of institutions and their transformation through interpreting meanings of social life; historical problems; domination, alienation, and social on changes in how people think - encourage interaction, networks for 'social theorizing'; focus on use of intensive case study or historically comparative cases; formation of formal models; use of 'ethnographic accounts' (interpretive social psychology). Race theoryto present stories of discrimination; eradicate racial subjugation while recognizing race is a social construct; interact race with other inequalities such as gender and ch places race and racism in the foreground of the research process; research looks for ways to explain experiences; research offers transformative theoryrelated to complexities of individual identity; explores how identities reproduce and perform in social forums; uses term 'queer theory' to allow incorporation of other social elements including race, class, age; holds binary distinctions are inadequate to describe sexual postmodern or poststructural orientation to deconstruct dominant theories related to identity; focuses on how identity is culturally linked to discourse and overlaps with human lity theoriesfocus on addressing inclusion in schools, encompassing administrators, teachers, parents of children with disabilities; focus on disability as a dimension of human difference rather than ch process views individuals with disabilities as different; questions asked, labels applied to these individuals, communication methods, and consideration of how data collected will benefit community considered; data reported in respectful order to carry out any kind of research that uses either part or all qualitative methods, it is important to consider the philosophical assumptions as well as the interpretive frameworks described here. Carnaghan,Thank you for your synthesis about philosophical assumptions that are embedded in interpretive frameworks. I’m having a hard time with my marketing research that talks about the phenomenology of the lgbt community: a marketing standpoint. I have an elongated understanding regarding qualitative assumptions and framework sting staff on reserach philosophy! Carnagham, the explanation of the link between philosophical assumptions and interpretative frameworks was very helpful. I would also recommend looking at other you please tell me something about philosophical thinking framework and its importance in writing an sir am struggling in differentiating between pragmatism and constructvism, which one goes with multiple realities and which one goes with a single reality? 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Help new research papers in:physicschemistrybiologyhealth sciencesecologyearth sciencescognitive sciencemathematicscomputer rivacycopyrightacademia © readers for authors for this article (login required). 30 – may gical and epistemological foundations of qualitative vasilachis de ct: the purpose of this paper is to describe the most relevant features of qualitative research in order to show how, from mology of the known subject perspective i propose, it is necessary to review first the ontological and then the s of this type of inquiry. I pass on to describe the secondary characteristics of qualitative research, expressing the need for an ontological rupture. Introduction: the "way" and the "ways" of purpose of this paper is to account for the need for reconsideration of the ontological and epistemological qualitative research. Has written: "the social representation system of a society at some historical period may the researcher to seek general knowledge, or, through denying the possibility of general knowledge, let the satisfied by descriptions of 'local knowledge'. Its institutional control operates throughout research development and reaches not only researchers, by options, but also their objects of analysis, by specifying what is "valid" to be known. Is it have access to the participant's identity in qualitative research without calling for an ontological rupture? Presence of a basic system of ontological, epistemological, axiological, and methodological assumptions with which ch their research is widely accepted (guba & lincoln, 1994, p. As with any other form g, rather than being exclusive, it complements the epistemology of the knowing subject in which i place such this path that i encourage you to take, answers are scarce and questions manifold, and most of them are the result , uncertainties and breakdowns produced in me during the research process by the presence of that "other's" face that,In front of me, rendered the limits of the ways of knowing used to know him/her all the more apparent. The characteristics, the principles, the assumptions that guide the process of knowing and the achievement gs, and 4. It shows the difficulties faced by researchers when the characteristics of what they intend to know are unprecedented,Or else, they cannot be, in part or as a whole, registered, observed, or understood by existing theories and/or concepts available methodological strategies (vasilachis de gialdino, 2007a). Define those paradigms as the "theoretical-methodological framework used by researchers to interpret social phenomena context of a given society" (vasilachis de gialdino, 1992a, p. The answers to questions arising from epistemological reflection in the context of a e do not constitute the kind of a priori knowledge scientific research employs in the remaining sciences. These questions result from the knowledge heritage of line in relation to daily research practice. Often persists in those who, despite carrying out qualitative research, cannot get rid of an empiricist ontology and epistemology. Qualitative methods "presuppose and draw on gm assumptions," and the following are their four basic principles: 1. These assumptions are specifically linked to a view ge "as a resource and a creation, as a way of producing and reproducing the social world" (vasilachis de gialdino, 1992b,3.

For the epistemology of the known subject, the reluctance of researchers to see the subjects participating in dge process as objects is not based on the fact of having a different view of the ontological nature of social reality,But on the fact of claiming different ontological characteristics in relation to the human being's identity. Although knowing people cannot be isolated from knowing their situation, for mology of the known subject the person and the situation belong in two different orders of knowledge, and each has , its assumptions, its ways of giving evidence, its legitimacy, its ontology and, therefore, its epistemology. This a fundamental bearing on the whole research process, from the purpose and research question to the definition of ; from sampling decisions to the options on data analysis strategies and, likewise, on the possibility of resorting ulation, since it could well be asked: can ontologically different data be compared? Qualitative research ative research comprises different orientations and approaches, various intellectual and disciplinary traditions grounded,Often, in different philosophical assumptions. This variety of views on what is known, what may be known, how it is known and on the way findings are to be transmitted demands an acknowledgment that there is not one legitimate way to conduct qualitative research. However, it is important to highlight that, in spite of such is also a whole group of marked similarities when it comes to designing the features of qualitative research. Systematization of the ever increasing contributions that have tried to define and, at the same time, characterize qualitative research enables those characteristics to be grouped according to: who and studied (section 4. 1 characteristics referring to who and what is ative research is interested, in particular, in the way in which the world is "understood, experimented, or produced". It focuses on real, located practice, and it is based on an interactive research process involving researcher and the social actors (flick, 1998, p. 3 characteristics related to the goal of the ative research seeks to "discover the new and to develop empirically grounded theories" (flick, 1998, p. Those two groups purpose of qualitative research, which determines the distinctiveness of its method:Characteristics referring to the people: that is, on the one hand the actors that the research is focused on, together with their actions, works, expressions, interpretations,Meanings, and productions, and, on the other hand the researcher who carries out data gathering and interpretation and tion of a final report that social actors in general interact with, teristics referring to the contexts, the observed social situations where relationships between either actors or actors and the researcher take place. Qualitative research were carried out, for instance, on documents, on specific textual corpus or pictures, it would people's features and their actions, the productions and situations they develop or have developed, and their those which would be examined to answer the research question in order to continue the analysis on the basis of those two groups of salient characteristics have led me to state that qualitative methods entail and manifest the the interpretive paradigm, the grounds of which lie in the need to grasp "the meaning of social action in the context life-world and from the actors' perspective" (vasilachis de gialdino, 1992a, p. Also, for hubert knoblauch, uwe christoph maeder (2005) qualitative research leans and depends on a meaning, context, interpretation, understanding tion-oriented conception, and it is its rooting in the interpretive, non positivist, paradigm that brings unity to get on with the epistemological reflection i have presented so far, it is necessary to remember that the two groups ative research features, defined as the most relevant, do not belong to the same order. The person is, then, the vital nucleus of this kind of inquiry and it is those characteristics the people that constitute the primary characteristics, those which are fundamental to qualitative research. The other hand, it is the characteristics referring to the context, to the situation in which senses are created, defined, and meanings are constructed, which make up the secondary characteristics of qualitative research, because what matters is the person, but the person placed in a given context. Different paradigms, which i placed within the epistemology of the knowing subject, have different ontological is, they determine the particular nature of what is to be known, so much so that they propose different methods for different validation criteria to assess research quality. In other words, the various philosophical assumptions and ations influence qualitative research in such different ways that they are bound to generate "contrasting set of judging the quality and credibility" (quinn patton, 2002, p.

Thus, qualitative research rigor the consistency between the research objectives and the underlying paradigmatic assumptions (haverkamp & young, 2007, p. To its characteristics, what is to be primarily known by qualitative research is the person; hence, the the known subject should aim at bringing about an ontological rupture as far as human beings' identity is concerned. That "questions of method are questions of paradigm," but i understand that ontological assumptions referring to identity come first and, therefore,Determine epistemological and methodological aspects. Identity and qualitative that the person is at the core of qualitative research, and that what is turned into who, it is necessary to point out once more that that who is, for the epistemology of the known subject, essentially the same although existentially different from the researcher,Because the basic principle of essential equality is the foundation of that epistemology. That surrounding world, constantly seen as the background, the arena, the permanent basis for researchers'. Means of the epistemology of the known subject, i hereby put forward renewed ontological and epistemological qualitative research, since the ontological proposal of such epistemology is grounded in a different conception of conception reaches out to the various subjects that participate in cognitive interaction. Thus, shifted the focus of attention, the debate no longer aims at social reality, its nature and characteristics, the conditioning factors it is subjected to and/ts, at the laws regulating it or according to which it develops or evolves, the way in which it is constructed, assumptions of how it can be known in valid terms. Could also be argued that it is the interpretive paradigm that adequately answers, in particular but not exclusively, ements of the secondary characteristics of qualitative research, that is, those focusing on the study of contexts situations. Interpretive paradigm is, then, the foundation of qualitative research within the epistemology of the knowing keeping with that kind of epistemology, the approach to the known subject is mediated, in general, by a veil woven tical representations of that "other" in the various disciplines, and in relation to the current paradigmatic , more often than not, coexist in the various contexts and moments in which knowledge production operates. In this fashion, social researchers have to consider the their theoretical background, which take certain descriptive social categories for granted, may bring about. Those categories which talk about many in general and no one in particular, are, nevertheless, the moment of posing a research question, interacting with "others," interpreting their actions, textually identity, and presenting the findings. It is necessary to ask oneself how stereotypes constructed around the research participant actors influence their identity,Their capacity for action and decision. Enables the participant actors' identity to ered, since the more researchers think they know all about them, the less that identity will be revealed. Cooperative knowledge ative research is nourished, mostly, by the different nature of the information provided by the people the inquiry. What the epistemology of the known subject is about, then, is recognizing the limitations of those of knowing and showing the need for the open-mindedness of the researcher to the plenitude of what can be perceived in. And what he is unique in, different from all a researcher is, then, not a different "other," but an equal "other," but also different from the ones who understand,For they share the same humanity. The dialogue researcher strikes up represents, at the same time, an encounter with his self, and an appeal for his own be suspended in that dialogue, for that "other" to be manifested and expressed, as he/she expects, wishes, to be in such communication a researcher is not grounded in the essential dimension of identity, as is the case in the of knowing, he is bound to construct the human beings he interacts with according to the measure of observable , although he may question them when external observation is not enough, he is also likely to register the than the common features that identify him with the others, since the difference is, in general, what he has to perceiving on approaching the "others.

The other hand, even from the assumption of attempting theory creation, researchers frequently resort to the current different disciplines, first to lead their research question and then to be assisted in data interpretation, or to pertinence of their findings. So much so that, for example, if researchers assume social reality ted to some sort of normativity, of law and that, in consequence, the autonomous capacity of the person's will is constrained,Determined, or conditioned, what value will they ascribe to the subjective meaning actors assign to their actions? On the answers to these questions enables a recognition of the obstacles researchers often, and even unintentionally,Raise to cooperative knowledge construction. Those theories have ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions and, if we incorporate the concepts of these theories cognitively,The subjects who are to be known will be observed, and their actions interpreted, along the line of those assumptions. Way, for example, depending on whether the theoretical orientation of the researcher feeds from georg simmel's (1939). Will now give an example to show how the ontological and epistemological principles i propose for qualitative research operate. An example: representation of young people regarded as linked to criminal acts in el salvador's written qualitative research tried to answer the following question: what are the interpretive models underlying the social representations of the identity of the young people that el salvador's written press associates with criminal acts? In alternative interpretive models assumptions of dangerousness are not present in relation to young people associated with criminal : for the prevailing interpretive model "violence" is a typical characteristic of those youngsters, along with "irrationality". Assumptions of the epistemology of the known subject that guided this qualitative research enabled me to, among : 1. Reflect on the similarities and differences of the various discourse orders: scientific, philosophical, judicial, journalistic,In relation to the construction of the identity of "other," and its potential influence on the possibility of historical action,Be it either individual or collective. Final paper might, then, conclude with one question among the very many posed throughout the text: why should the the known subject be accepted as the ontological and epistemological foundation of qualitative research? The first place, it is necessary to highlight that, since it is people that the primary, fundamental characteristics ative research orbits around, the acceptance of the ontological rupture of identity enables to grasp, at the same time,Its two components: the essential and the existential one. Gical rupture enables the avoidance of the remnants of realistic ontology, so frequent in the epistemology of the t, even if the interpretive paradigm is assumed and qualitative research carried is, then, about knowing "with" the "other" and not "about" the "other," about being one and the same with him or her, the shared component of identity; about leaving out separation, the otherness that separates the knower and the known turns them into "objects," much as their "subjectivity" as a knower may have been appealed is about making the total manifestation of those "others" possible, about not exercising first, cognitive and then ce against them, imposing an interpretation code they would have never resorted to, to account for the meaning of is about acknowledging that choosing one and/or the other paradigm, one and/or the other epistemology is bound to whole research process: from the purpose to the inquiry question; from the methodological strategies to data analysis,From textual representation of the findings to the assessment of the research is about avoiding the (un)ethical consequences of situations where researchers who, having to display ‘two faces’ at time, become overwhelmed by the requirements of so called scientific knowledge, and consequently change their epistemological assumptions in the passage from data collection to the writing of the final is about those researchers not giving up the principle of equality to lay stress on the is about their overcoming any distance and avoiding being trapped in the epistemological dualism with which "objectivity". Both inquiries were funded by the consejo nacional de investigaciones científicas y técnicas, conicet [national council ific and technological research], and the agencia nacional de promoción científica y tecnológica [national agency promotion of science and technology] of argentina. Further examples of qualitative research applications of this epistemology premises can be found in vasilachis de , maureen j. Naturalistic inquiry and reliabilism: a compatible epistemological ative health research, 12(7), -ellis, jo; alexander, victoria d. Qualitative health research, 11(4), vasilachis de gialdino is a lld, sociologist, discourse analysis specialist and postgraduate and phd professor at argentinean and foreign is a senior researcher at the consejo nacional de investigaciones científicas y técnicas [national council for technological research] conicet, of argentina at the centro de estudios e investigaciones laborales [centre for s and research], ceil-piette.

2017 forum qualitative sozialforschung / forum: qualitative social research (issn 1438-5627) supported by the institute for qualitative research and the center for digital systems, freie universität 10, no.